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University of California 

Los Angeles 

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This book is DUE on the last date stamped below 

18 1985* 


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Adapted for the Use of Beginners 



W. WELCH, M.A., 
Rev. C. G. DUFFIELD, M.A., 





All rights reserved 

First Edition 1SS3. 

Reprinted January and April 1SS4, 1SS5, 1886. 

1888, 1SS9, 1891, 1892, 1894, 1896, 1898, 1899. 



) Introduction, 

.\ Note on Eutropius, 
Chronological Table, - 
Directions for Translating, 
Rules of Agreement, - 
-' Directions for Parsing, 

<I Eutropii Historia Romana, 

<sy Exercises, - 

— ^ Notes, 


^ Index, 

^N) Maps — Rome, 
The Roman Empire, 










♦ 71 





This book is intended for pupils in quite an elemen- 
tary stage. The text of Eutropius has been much 
abridged, and most, if not all, of the diflficult passages 
and unusual constructions have been either omitted 
or altered. 

While quite agreeing in the use of dictionaries for 
upper forms, the Editors are of opinion that for small 
boys it causes great waste of time, and much mental 
confusion, without any corresponding advantage. As 
a rule boys cannot understand how a word can be used 
in more than one sense; they take the first meaning 
given in the dictionary, and if it is not the meaning 
required by the context, so much the worse for the 
sense. WTien boys come to such an age that they 
are able to realize the necessity of making a fit choice, 
the working of the dictionary is no doubt a valuable 
mental exercise. 

Some seek to meet the objection to the use of 
dictionaries by having a vocabulary arranged alpha- 


betically with selected meanings; but for beginners 
this plan has several drawbacks. In order to get all 
the benefit possible from a construing lesson, the 
meaning of the Latin words should be known both in 
the context and also separately, and it is for this 
reason that many teachers make their boys write 
down the words when they have looked them out, 
and so form their o^vn vocabulary. But young boys 
do not copy faithfully, and if the words have been 
learnt off from these home-made vocabularies, a large 
crop of errors will have been stored up. The winnow- 
ing process is not an easy one. 

These considerations have decided the Editors to 
adopt the plan of arranging the vocabularies in the 
order of the text. The boys can here learn the voca- 
bulary to a lesson after the construing has been made 
clear to them, and thus get to know the words both 
in the context and independently of it. If the master 
always gives part of the hour to an examination in 
the back vocabularies, the knowledge of his pupils 
will increase rapidly. 

Should it be found that the learning of so many 
words is apt to produce a confused rather than a 
clear knowledge, the master can make his boys mark 
the important words only to be learnt, the rest being 
considered in the context alone. In this way some of 
the root words of the language will become familiar, 
and the beginner's memory may escape the danger of 



the conflisfon which comes of trying to remember too 
many words at once. 

As a rule no word is given more than once in the 
vocabulary. If it has been forgotten, it must be sought 
for again, by means of the index, in the place where 
it first occurred: thus the principle of "connecting the 
known with the unknown " is insisted upon. 

Marks of quantity have been placed over those 
syllables only where it is possible for a boy to make 
a mistake in pronunciation. 

TVTiat may be considered by some to be a more 
valuable feature of the book are the exercises, which 
consist of five or six sentences made up of words 
occurring in the chapter with which the exercise runs 
parallel, or of words but lately used. The tendency 
always is to make the sentences too hard. Every 
teacher of any experience knows the value of closely 
connecting the translation and composition lesson, 
and is also painfully aware of the difiiculty of making 
up the required sentences during the lesson. It is 
hoped, therefore, that this saving of time and labour 
on the part of the teacher will be duly appreciated. 
It is suggested that the translation of any chapter 
and the exercise on that chapter should be done on 
the same day, and, if possible, during the same 

An English-Latin vocabulary has been purposely 
omitted. The average boy will prefer to look out a 


word in a vocabulary rather than exercise his thought; 
and even if he has to look back to the text for the 
word, it will be another link forged between the 
translation and composition. 

The notes, which, as a rule, boys make but little 
use of, ^vill, it is hoped, be found to contain all that 
is necessary. They are not copious, and do not pro- 
fess to take the place of the master's explanation. 


Very little is known of Eutropius, and his summary 
of Roman History is the only work of his that has 
been preserved. It was written in the reign of the 
Emperor Valens, to whom it is dedicated, sometime 
between A.D. 364 and 378. The work, which con- 
sists of ten books, commences with the foundation of 
Rome by Romulus and terminates with the death of 
the Emjjeror Jovian, A.D. 364. Eutropius is said to 
have been secretary to the Emperor Constantino the 
Great, and from a remark which he drops in the 
tenth book, we learn that he served under the 
emperor Julian in his ill-fated expedition against the 
Persians, A.D. 363 (x. xvi. i. Julianus...Parthis intulit 
helium, cui expeditioni ego qiwqiie interfui). As might 
be expected from the nature of his undertaking, 
his style is simple and terse, and his language well 
chosen; as a historian his judgment is cool and 


Kome founded, - . . ^ . . . 753 

The Seven Kings reigned, - - - . 753-509 

The Romans drove out their kings, - . . . 509 

The dictatorship introduced, - ■ - . . 501 

"War with Veii, - - • - . . . 483 

Decemvirs appointed, - - . . . . 451 

Camillus dictator, ----.. 405 

Capture of Rome by the Gauls, .... 390 

Battle of the Caudine Forks, - • - . . 32I 

The Samnites defeated, ---... 290 

War with Pyrrhus, ----.. 281 

The Romans masters of all Italy, - - . . 275 

First Punic War, ---... 263 

Second Punic War, ---... 218 

Battle of Zama, ---•-.. 202 

Macedonian War, ----.. 2OO 

War with Antiochus, ----.. 192 

The Romans conquerors of the East, - - . . 190 

Third Punic War, -.-.._ 149 

Carthage destroyed, ...... 146 

War with Jugurtha, ...... in 

Cimbrian War, - - - . . . . i05 

Civil War between Marius and SuUa, - - - - 88 

Wars with Mithridates, - - . . . 83-74 

Catiline's Conspiracy, - • - . . - 63 
Caesar's conquest of Gaul, • - - . -56 

Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, - - - 49 

Pompey defeated at Pharsalia, - - - - - 48 

Death of Caesar, - - - - . - 44 

Triumvirate of Octavianus, Antony, and Lepidus, - - 43 

Defeat of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi, - - - 42 

Antony defeated by Octavianus at Actium, - - - 31 
Octavianus proclaimed Emperor under the title of Augustus 

Caesar, - - .... 29 


1. Pick out the finite verb (the predicate) and find out its 
voice, mood, tense, number, and person. 

2. Find the subject or subjects with which it agrees. Trans- 

3. If the verb is incomplete, find the object or completion 

4. See if the subject is enlarged by any of the methods 
mentioned below ; if it is, translate, taking the enlargements 
with the subject. 

5. See if the object is enlarged; if it is, translate, taking 
the enlargements with the object. 

6. Take the extensions of the predicate. Translate. 

7. Translate finally, putting in the introductory conjimc- 
tions or other words not yet taken. 

The subject may be 

1. A noun. 

2. A pronoun (perhaps understood in the verb). 

3. An adjective. 

4. An infinitive mood. 

5. A phrase. 

The subject may be enlarged by 

1. An adjective or participle. 

2. A noun in apposition. 

3. A noun in the genitive case. 

4. A relative clause. 

5. A participial phrase. 

The object or completion may consist of a phrase, or of any 
of the parts of speech which can form a subject. 


The object may be enlarged in the same way as the subject. 

The predicate may be extended by 

1. Adverb. 

2. Ablative case. 

3. Preposition and its case. 

4. Adverbial sentence. 

Rules oi' Agreement. 

1. The verb agrees with its subject in number and person 
(and gender in the compound tenses). 

2. The adjective agrees with its substantive in gender, 
number, and case. 

3. The relative agrees with its antecedent in gender and 
number ; for case it looks to its own verb. 


1. Verb. Person, number, tense, mood, and voice, from 
(give the parts). Agrees with , its subject. 

2. Noun. Case, number, and gender, from , of the 

declension. Give the reason for the case. 

3. Adjective. Case, number, and gender, from and is 

declined like . It agrees with its substantive . 

Give the comparative and superlative. 

4. Relative. Case, number, and gender, from . It 

agrees with its antecedent , Give the reason for the 




1. ROMANUM imperium a Romulo exordium habet ; 
qui, Yestalis ^drginis filius et Martis, cum Romulus. 
Remo fratre uno partu editus est. Is, octo- ^'^' '^^^' 
decim annos natus, urbem exiguam in Palatino monte 
constituit post Trojae excidium anno trecentesimo nou- - 
agesirao quarto. 2. Condita civitate, quam ex nomine 
suo Romam vocavit, haec fere egit : multitudinem fini- 
timorum in civitatem recepit; centum ex senioribus 
elegit, quorum consilio omnia ageret, quos Senatores 
nomina\^t propter senectutem. Tunc, quum ipse et lo 
populus uxores non habeiont, invitavit ad spectacu- 
lum ludorum vicinas urbi nationes, atque earum vir- 
gines rapuit. 3. Commotis bellis propter raptarum 
injuriam, Caeninenses vicit, Antemnates, Crustuminos, 
Sabinos, Fidenates, Veientes : haec omnia oppida t 15 

§ A 


urbem cingunt. Et quum, orta subito tempestate. 
non com2)aruisset, anno regui tricesimo septimo, ad 
deos transisse creditus, consecratus est. Deinde 
Romae per quinos dies senatores imperaverunt ; et, 
20 his regnantibus, annus unus completus est. 

4. Postea Numa Pompilius rex creatus est, qui 
Numa bellum nullum quidem gessit, sed non minus 

Pompilius. ... T-. 1 ^ • 

B.C. 716. civitati quam Komulus proiuit ; nam et leges 
Romanis moresque constituit, qui consuetudine proeli- 
25 orum jam latrones ac semibarbari putabantur ; annum 
descripsit in decern menses ; et infinita Romae sacra 
ac templa constituit. Morbo decessit quadragesimo 
tertio imperii anno. 

5. Huic successit Tullus Hostilius. Hie Albanos 
30 Tullus vicit, qui ab urbe Roma duodecimo milliario 


B.C. 674 absunt ; Veientes et i^idenates, quorum alii 

sexto milliario absunt ab urbe Romana, alii octavo 

decimo, bello superavit ; urbem ampliavit, adjccto 

Caelio monte. Quum triginta duos annos regnasset, 

35 fulmine ictus, cum domo sua arsit. 

6. Post hunc Ancus Marcius, Numae nepos, suscepit 
Ancus imperium. Contra Latinos dimicavit; Aven- 

Marcius. . ...... x • 1 

B.C. 640. tinum montem civitati adjecit et Jamculum; 
Ostiam condidit. Vicesimo quarto anno imperii morbo 
40 periit. 

7. Deinde regnum Priscus Tarquinius accepit. Hie 
Tarquinius numerum senatorum duplicavit; circum Romae 

Priscus. T./^-ii-i-k ... ., 

B.C. 616. aedincavit ; ludos Romanos mstituit, qui ad 


nostram memoriam permanent. Vicit idem etiam 
Sabinos; primusque triumphans urbem intravit. Muros 45 
fecit et cloacas ; capitolium inchoa^dt. Tricesimo 
octavo imperii anno per Anci filios occisus est, regis 
ejus cui ipse successerat. 

8. Post hunc Servius Tullius suscepit imperium, 
genitus ex nobili femina, captiva tamen et Servius co 

° ■'■ Tullius. '^ 

ancilla. Hie quoque Sabinos subegit; montes b.c.578. 
tres, Quirinalem, Yiminalem, Esquilinum, urbi ad- 
junxit; fossas circum miirum diixit. Primus omnium 
censum ordinavit, qui adhuc per orbem terrarum in- 
cognitus erat. 9. Sub eo Roma, omnibus in censum 55 
delatis, habuit octoginta quattuor millia civium Rom- 
anorum, cum his qui in agris erant, Occisus est 
quadragesimo quinto imperii anno, scelere generi sui 
Tarquinii Superbi, filii ejus regis cui ipse successerat, 
et filiae suae, quam Tarquinius habebat uxorem. 60 

10. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, septimus atque 
ultimus regum, Volscos superavit: Gabios et Tarquinius 

, , . Supeibus. 

Suessam Pometiam subegit ; cum Tuscis b.c. 534. 
pacem fecit; et templum Jovi in capitolio aedifi- 
cavit. Postea, Ardeam oppugnans, in octavo de-65 
cimo milliario ab urbe positam, imperium perdidit. 
Nam quum filius ejus, Tarquinius junior, nobilis- 
simi Collatini uxorem injuria affecisset, eaque de 
injuria marito, et patri, et amicis questa fuisset, in 
omnium conspectu se occidit. 11. Propter quam 70 
causam Brutus, parens, et ipse Collatinus populum 


concita-sdt, et Tarquinio ademit imperium. Mox 
exercitus quoque qui Ardeam cum ipso rege 
oppugnabat eum reliquit ; veniensque ad urbem 
7 5 rex, portis clausis, exclusus est. Quumque impera- 
visset annos viginti quinque, cum uxore et liberis 
suis fugit. 


12. Hinc consules coepere, pro uno rege, duo h^c 
causa creari; ut, si unus malus esse voluisset, ab 

Soaltero coerceretur. Et placuit ne imperium longius 
quam annum haberent; ne per diuturnitatem potestatis 
insolentiores redderentur. Fuerunt igitur anno primo, 
expulsis regibus, consules Lucius Junius Brutus et 
Tarquinius Collatinus, maritus Lucre tiae. 13. Sed 

85 Tarquinio Collatino statim sublata dignitas est ; 
placuerat enim ne quisquam in arbe maneret qui 
Tarquinius vocaretur. Ergo ex urbe migravit ; cujus 
in locum factus est Valerius Publicola consul. Com- 
mo\dt tamen bellum urbi Romanae rex Tarquinius, qui 

90 fuerat expulsus, et, collectis undique multis gentibus, 
ut in regnum posset restitui dimicavit. 14. In prima 
pugna Brutus et Aruns, Tarquinii filius, invicem se 
occiderunt. Bomani tamen ex ea pugna victores 
recesserunt. Brutum Romanae matronae, defensorem 

95 pudicitiae suae, quasi communem patrem, per annum 
luxerunt. Nono anno post reges exactos, quum gener 


Tarquinii, ad injuriam soceri vindicandam, ingentem 
collegisset exercitum, nova Romae dignitas Dictatorship 

-r^. n -n 1 introduced. 

est creata, quae Dictatura appellatur. Lodem b.c. 501. 
anno etiam Magister equitum factus est, qui dictator! 100 


15. Octavo decimo anno postquam reges ejecti 
ei ant, expulsus ex urbe Quintius Marcius, rj^^ voiscians 
dux Romanorum qui Coriolos ceperat, ^^ ^°"^^"^- 
Volscorum civitatem, ad ipsos Yolscos contendit iratus; 

et auxilia contra Eomanos accepit. Quum Romanos 105 
saepe vicisset, usque ad urbem accessit ; et oppugna- 
visset etia-m patriam suam, legatis qui pacem petebant 
repudiatis, nisi ad eum mater Yeturia et uxor Yolumnia 
ex urbe venissent, quarum fletu et deprecatione supe- 
ratus, removit exercitum. no 

16. Kaesone Fabio et Tito Yirginio consulibus, tre- 
centi nobiles homines, qui ex Fabia gente Warvdth 
erant, contra Veientes bellum soli suscepe- b.c. 483. 
runt. Itaque profecti omnes nobiles in proelio con- 
ciderunt. Unus omnino superfuit ex tanta faniilia, 115 
qui propter aetatem puerilem duci non potuerat ad 
pugnam. 17- Sequenti anno quum in Algido monte 
Romanus obsideretur exercitus, L. Quintius Cincin- 
natus dictator est factus, qui, agrum quattuor jugerum 
possidens, manibus suis colebat. Is quum in agris 120 
arans esset inventus, sudore deterso, togam praetextam 


accepit, et, caesis hostibus, liberavit exercitum. Postea 
Decemvirs imperium consulare cessavit, et pro duobus 

appointed ti i r» • 

B.C. 451. consulibus decem facti sunt, qui summam 
[25 potestatem haberent, Decemviri nominati. 

18. Post viginti deinde annos Veientes rebella- 
camiiiug veruut. Dictator contra ipsos missus est 

Dictator. -^ • ^ .11 • • 

B.C. 405 Furius Camillus, qui primum eos vicit acie ; 
mox etiam civitatem diu obsidens cepit, antiquissimam 
i3oItaliae atque ditissimam. 4. Post earn cepit et Faliscos, 
non minus nobilem civitatem; sed commota est ei 
in'V'idia, quod praedam male divisisset, damnatusque 
ob earn causam et expulsus civitate est. 

19. Statim Galli Senones ad urbem venerunt; et 
135 Rome taken Romauos apud flumen Alliam victos secuti, 

^^ bv the Gauls. ^ 

B.C. 390. etiam urbem occupaverunt ; neque defend! 
quidquam nisi capitolium potuit. Quod quum diu 
obsedissent, et jam Romani fame laborarent, a Camillo, 
qui in vicina civitate exsulabat, victi suntdJ postea 

i4otamen, accepto etiam auro ne capitolium obsiderent, 
recesserunt ; quos secutus Camillus ita cecidit, ut et 
aurum, quod his datum fuerat, et omnia militaria signa 
revocaret. 20. Titus Quintius dictator adversus 
Gallos, qui in Italiam venerant, missus est. Hi trans 

145 Anienem fluvium consederant. Nobilissimus de sena- 
toribus, Titus ManKus, Galium ad singulare certamen 
provocantem occidit ; torquem aureum sustulit, et in 
collo suo imposuit ; qua de re in perpetuum sibi 
et posteris cognomen Torquati accepit, Galli fugati 


sunt. Mox per C. Sulpicium dictatorem etiam 150 
victi sunt. 21. Mox quum legiones profectae 
essent ad versus G alios, duce Lucio Furio Camillo, 
quidam ex Gallis unum e Eomanis, qui esset 
optimus, provocavit. Turn se Marcus Valerius, 
tribunus militum, obtulit; et quum processisset 155 
armatus, corvus ei in galea consedit. Mox, commissa 
adversus Galium pugna, idem comis alis et unguibus 
Galli ocTilos verberavit : ita ut, a tribuno Valerio 
interfectus, non solum victoriam ei, sed etiam nomcn, 
dederit ; nam postea idem Corvinus est dictus, ac 1 60 
propter hoc meritum annorum trium et viginti consul 
est factus. 

22. Jam Eomani potentes esse coeperunt. Bellum 
enim apud Samnitas gerebatur, qui medii sunt samnite 
inter Picenum, Campaniam et Apuliam. L. ^^^- 165 
Papirius Cursor cum honore dictatoris ad id bellum 
profectus est. Qui quum Eomam rediisset, Q. Fabio 
Jdaximo, magistro equitum, quern apud exercitum 
reliquit, praecepit, ne se absente pugnaret. lUe, 
occasione reperta, felicissime dimicavit, et Samnitas 170 
dele\dt. Ob quam rem a dictatore capitis damnatus, 
quod se vetante pugnasset, ingenti favore militum et 
populi liberatus est. 23. Postea Samnites Romanos, 
apud Furculas Caudinas anoiistiis locorum Battle of the 

, Caudine Forks. 

conclusos, ingenti dedecore vicerunt et sub b.c. 321. 175 
jugum miserunt. Pax tamen a senatu et populo soluta 
est, quae cum ii)sis propter necessitatera facta fuerat. 


Postea Samnites victi sunt a L. Papirio consule 
septem millia eorum sub jugum miss a. Papirius de 
1 80 Samnitibus triumphavit. Eo tempore Appius Claudius 
censor Aquam Claudiam induxit, et viam Appiam 


24. Inter jectis aliquot annis, Tarentinis, qui jam 
in ultima Italia sunt, bellum indictum est. His ut 

185 auxilium feiret, Pyrrhus, Epiri rex, in Italiam venit. 
Tum primum Eomani cum transmarino hoste dimi- 
caverunt. Missus est contra eum consul Publius 
Valerius Laevinus, qui, quum exploratores Pyrrhi 
cepisset, jussit eos per castra duci, ostendique omnem 

190 exercitum, tumque dimitti, ut renuntiarent Pyrrlio 
quaecunque a Eomanis agerentur. 25. Commissa 
mox pugna, quum jam Pyrrhus fugeret, elephantorum 
auxilio vicit, quos incognitos Romani expaverunt; sed 
nox proelio finem dedit. Laevinus tamen per noctem 

1 95 fugit. Pyrrhus Romanos mille octingentos cepit, eosque 
summo honore tractavit: occisos sepelivit; quos quum 
adverso vulnere et truci viiHu mortuos jacere vidisset, 
tulisse ad coelum manus dicitur cum hac voce, se 
totius orbis dominum esse potuisse, si tales sibi milites 

200 contigissent. 26. Postea Pyrrhus, junctis sibi Samni- 
tibus, Lucanis, Briittiis, Romam perrexit ; omnia 
ferro ignique vastavit ; Campanium depopulatus est ; 


atque Praenesten venit milliario ab iirhe octavo 
decimo. Mox terrore exercitus, qui cum consulc 
sequebatur, in Campaniam se recepit. Legati ad 205 
Pyrrhum de redimendis captivis missi, ab eo honorifice 
suscepti sunt ; captivos sine pretio Eomam misit. 27. 
Unura ex legatis Eomanorum, Fabricium, sic admiratus 
est, ut, quum eum pauperem esse cognovisset, quarta 
parte regni promiss^ sollicitare voluerit, ut ad se 2 1 o 
transiret ; contemptusque a Fabricio est. Quare quum 
Pyrrlius ingenti Itomanonim admiratione teneretur, 
legatum praecipuum virum, Cineam nomine, misit, qui 
pacem acquis conditionibus peteret, ita ut Pyrrhus 
partem Italiae, quam jam armis occupaverat, obtineret. 215 

28. Inter jecto anno, contra Pyrrhum Fabricius est 
missus, qui prius inter legatos sollicitari non rj^g integrity 
potuerat, quarta parte regni promissa. Tum, °^ Fabncius. 
quum vicina castra ipse et rex haberet, medicus 
Pyrrhi ad eum nocte venit, promittens veneno Pyrrhum 220 
se occisurum, si sibi aliquid poUiceretur ; quem Fabri- 
cius vinctum reduci jussit ad dominum, Pyrrhoque 
dici quae medicus spopondisset. Tum rex, admirans 
eum, dixisse fertur, " Ille est Fabricius qui difficiHus 

ab honestate quam sol a cursu suo averti potest." 225 

29. Tum rex in Siciliam profectus est. Fabricius, 
\dctis Samnitibus et Lucanis, triumphavit. Consules 
deinde Manius Curius Dentatus et Cornehus Lentulus 
adversus Pyrrhum missi sunt. Curius exercitum ejus 
superavit; ipsum Tarentum fugavit ; castra cepit. E0230 


die caesa sunt hostium ^^ginti tria rnillia. Curius 
Dentatus in consulatu triumphant. Primus Romam 
elephantos quattuor duxit. Pyrrhus etiam Tarento 
mox recessit, et apud Argos occisus est. 

FIRST PUNIC WAR. B.C. 263-241. 

235 30. Quinto anno belli Punici, quod contra Afros 
gerebatur, primum Romani, Caio Duilio et Cneio 
Cornelio Asino consulibus, in mari dimicaverunt, 
paratis navibus rostratis, quas Liburnas vocant. 
Consul Cornelius fraude deceptus est. Duilius, com- 

2 4oniisso praelio, Carthaginiensium ducem vicit; triginta 
et unam naves cepit, quattuordecim mersit ; octo 
millia hostium cepit, tria millia occidit : neque uUa 
victoria Romanis gratior fuit, quod, invicti terra, jam 
etiam mari plurimum possent. 

245 31. Lucio Manlio Volsone, Marco Atilio Regulo 

Regius, consulibus, bellum in Africam translatum est 

B.C. 255. contra Hamilcarem, Carthaginiensium ducem. 

In mari est pugnatum, victusque est ; nam perditis 

sexaginta quattuor navibus, retro se recepit : Romani 

250 viginti duas amiserunt : sed quurn in Africam trans- 
issent, consules usque ad Carthaginera processerunt ; 
multisque vastatis, Manlius victor Romam rediit, et 
viginti septem millia captivorum reduxit. Atilius 
Regulus in Africa remansit, et saepius victor, septua- 

2.1^.5; ginta quattuor civitates in fidem accepit. 


32. Turn victi Carthaginienses pacem a Romanis 
petierunt, quam quum Regulus nollet nisi durissimis 
conditionibus dare, Afri auxilium a Lacedaemoniis 
petierunt, et, duce Xanthippe, qui a Lacedaemoniis 
missus fuerat, Regulus ita victus est, ut duo millia2 6o 
tantum ex omni Romano exercitu superessent ; quin- 
genti capti sunt, triginta millia occisa ; Regulus ipse 
in catenas conjectus. 33. Postea Metellus in Sicilia 
Afrorum ducem, cum centum triginta elephantis et 
magnis copiis venientem, superavit; viginti millia 265 
liostium cecidit ; viginti sex elephantos cepit, reliquos 
errantes per Numidas, quos in auxilium habebat, 
collegit et Romam deduxit ingenti pompa. 34. Post 
haec mala Carthaginienses Regulum ducem, quem 
ceperant, petierunt, ut Romam proficisceretui', et 270 
pacem a Romanis obtineret, ac permutationem capti- 
vorum faceret. Ille Romam quum venisset, inductus 
in senatum, nihil quasi Rom anus egit, dixitque, se ex 
ilia die, qua in potestatem Afrorum venisset, Romanum 
esse desiisse. 35. Itaque et uxorem a complexu2 75 
removit, et senatui suasit, ne pax cum Poenis fieret. 
Itaque obtinuit. Nam Afros, pacem petentes, nohiit 
admittere; ipse Carthaginem rediit, utferentibusque 
Romanis, ut eum Romae tenerent, negavit, se in ea 
urbe mansurum, in qua, postquam Afris servierat, 280 
dignitatem honesti civis habere non posset. Regressus 
igitur ad Africam omnibus suppHciis exstinctus est. 
\J36. Caio Lutatio Catulo, Aulo Postumio Albino con- 


sulibus, anno belli Punici ^dcesimo tertio, Catulb bellum 

285 contra Afros commissum est. Profectus est cum tre- 

centis navibus in Siciliam. Afri contra ipsum quadrin- 

gentas paraverunt. Lutatius Catulus navem aeger 

ascendit, vulneratus enim in pugna superiore fuerat. 

Contra Lilybaeum pugnatumest ingenti \drtute Roman- 

2 9oorum; nam septuaginta tres Carthaginiensium naves 

captae sunt, centum viginti quinque demersae ; triginta 

duo millia hostium capta, tredecim occisa ; infinitum 

auri argentique pondus in potestatem Romanorum re- 

dactum. Ex classe Romana duodecim naves demersae. 

295 Statim Carthaginienses pacem petierunt, tributaque 

iis pax. 


37. Bellum Punicum secundum Romanis illatum 
The Carthaginians est per Hauuibalem, Carthasriniensium 

under Hannibal. -^ . . 

B.C. 218-202. ducem, qui Saguntum, Hispaniae urbem 
300 Romanis amicam, oppugnare aggressus est. Huic 
Romani per legatos denuntiaverunt, ut bello abstineret : 
is legatos admittere noluit. Romani etiam Cartba- 
ginem miserunt, ut mandaretur Hannibali ne bellum 
contra socios populi Romani gereret. Saguntini interea, 
305 fame victi cap ti que ab Hannibale, gravissimis poenis 
afficiuntur. 38. Tum Publius Cornelius Scipio cum 
exercitu in Hispaniam profectus est ; Tiberius Sem- 
pronius in Siciliam. Bellum Carthaginiensibus in- 
dictum est. Hannibal, relicto in Hispania fratre 


Hasdrubale, Pyrenaeum transiit; Alpes, arlhuc in ea3io 
parte invias, sibi patefecit. Traditur ad Italiam octo- 
ginta millia peditum, et viginti millia equitum, septem 
et triginta elephantos adduxisse. Sempronius Grac- 
chus, cognito in Italiam Hannibalis adventu, e Sicilia 
exercitum Ariminum trajecit. 39. Publius Cornelius 315 
Scipio Hannibali primus occurrit : commisso praelio, 
fugatis suis, ipse vulneratus in castra rediit. Sem- 
pronius Gracchus, quum apud Trebiam Battle of the 

n- • ' • X n 1 m Trebia. 

amnem connixisset, \incitur. Inde ad Tus- b.c. 218. 
ciam veniens, Hannibal Flaminio consuli occurrit: 320 
ipsum Flaminium interemit; Eomanorum viginti quin- 
que millia caesa sunt; ceteri diffugerunt. Missus 
adversus Hannibalem postea a Romanis Q. Fabius 
iNlaximus. Is eum, differendo pugnam, ab impetu 
fregit, et mox, inventa occasione, vicit. 325 

40. Quingentesimo et quadragesimo anno a condita 
urbe L. Aemilius Paullus, P. Terentius Varro contra 
Hannibalem mittuntur, Fabioque succedunt, qui 
ambos consules monuit, ut Hannibalem, calidum et 
impatientem ducem, non alitor \dncerent, quam proe- 330 
Hum differendo. Verum quum impatientia Yarronis 
cousulis apud vicum qui Cannae appellatur, Battle of 
in Appulia pugnatum esset, ambo consules b.c. 216. 
vincuntur. 41. In ea pugna tria millia Afrorum 
pereunt ; magna pars de exercitu Hannibalis sauciatur. 335 
Nullo tamen proelio Romani graviora damna accepe- 
runt : periit enim in eo ^milius Paulus consul ; con- 


sulares et praetorii viginti, senatores capti aut occisi 
triginta, nobiles viri treceuti, equitum tria millia et 

340 quingenti : ita ut tres modios aureorum annulorum 
Carthaginem mitteret, quos e manibus equitum Eo- 
manorum, senatorum, militum detraxerat. Interea 
in Hispania, ubi frater Hannibalis Hasdrubal reman- 
serat cum magno exercitu, ut eam totam Afris subi- 

345 geret, a duobus Scipionibus, Eomanis ducibus, vincitur, 

perditque in pugna triginta quinque millia hominum. 

42. Decimo anno postquam Poeni in Ttaliam vene- 

rant, Hannibal usque ad quartum milliarium urbis 

accessit; equites ejus usque ad portam. Mox consulum 

350 metu, cum exercitu venientum, Hannibal ad Cam- 
paniam se recepit. In Hispania a fratre ejus Hasdru- 
bale ambo Scipiones, qui per multos annos victores 
fuerant, interficiuntur ; exercitus tamen integer man- 
sit ; casu enim magis erant, quam virtute, decepti. 

355 43. Tandem ad Hispanias Publius Cornelius Scipio 

Scipio in Hiittitur, filius PubHi Scipionis qui ibidem 

Spam, ijgii^jjj gesserat, annos natus quattuor et viginti, 

vir Eomanorum omnium et sua aetate et posteriori 

tempore fere primus. Is Carthaginem Novam capit, 

360 in qua omne aurum et argentum et belli apparatum 
Afri habebant. Anno decimo quarto postquam in 
Italiam Hannibal venerat Scipio, consul factus, in 
Africam mittitur; cui viro divinum quiddam inesse 
existimabatur. adeo ut putaretur etiam cum numinibus 

365 habere sermonem. 44. Is Syphacem, Numidiae regem, 

N O R I C U M 



qui se Afris conjunxerat, capit. Syphax, cum nobi- 
lissimis Numidis et infinitis spoliis, a Scipione Eomam 
mittitur ; qu§, re audita, omnis fere Italia Hannibalem 
deserit : ipse a Carthaginiensibus in Africam redire ju- 
betur, quam Scipio vastabat. Ita anno septimo decimo 370 
ab Hannibale Italia liberata est, quam flens dicitur 
reliquisse. Infertur a Scipione et Masinissa, alio rege 
Numidarum, qui amicitiam cum Scipione fecerat, Car- 
thagini bellum. 45. Hannibal tres exploratores ad 
Scipionis castra misit, quos captos Scipio circumduci 375 
per castra jussit, ostendique totum exercitum, mox 
etiam prandium dari, eosque dimitti, ut renuntiarent 
Hannibali quae apud Eomanos vidissent. g^ttie of zama. 
Interea proelium ab utroque duce instruc- ^•^- ^^^ 
turn est, quale vix ulla memoria fuit, quum periti-380 
simi viri copias suas ad bellum educerent. Scipio 
victor recedit, paene ipso Hannibale capto, qui primum 
cum multis equitibus, deinde cum viginti, postremo 
cum quattuor, evasit. Post id certamen pax cum 
Carthaginiensibus facta est. Scipio Eomam rediit, et 385 
ingenti gloria triumpha\at, atque Africanus ex eo 
appellari coeptus est. 


46. Transact© Punico bello, secutum est Macedo- 
nicum contra Philippum regem. Quin- Macedonian War 
gentesimo et quinquagesimo primo ^^ ^^- -qq 


anno ab urbe condita T. Quinctius Flamininus 
adversus Philippum rem prospere gessit ; pax ei data 
est. Transacto bello Macedonico secutum est Syriacum 
War with Antiochus. contra Antiochum regem, P. Coraelio 

395 ^'^' ^^^' Scipione, M'. Acilio Glabrione con- 

sulibus. Huic Antiocho Hannibal se junxerat, Car- 
thaginem, patriam suam, metu, ne Eomanis traderetur, 
relinquens. M'. Acilius Glabrio in Achaia bene 
pugnavit. Castra regis Antiochi noctuma piigna 

400 capta sunt, et ipse fugatus est. 

47. Turn Scipio Africanus fratri suo L. Comelio 
Scipioni consuli legatus contra Antiochum profectus 
est. Hannibal, qui cum Antiocho erat, navali proelio 
victus est. Ipse postea Antiochus circa Sipylum ad 

405 Magnesiam, Asiae civitatem, a consule Cornelio 
Scipione ingenti proelio fusus est. Quinquaginta 
millia peditum, tria equitum eo certamine ex parte 
regis occisa sunt. Tum rex Antiochus pg^ce is made. 
pacem petiit, quae data est a senatu. ^•^- ^^^• 

410 Hannibal, qui victo Antiocho, ne Eomanis traderetur, 
ad Prusiam, Bithyniae regem, fugerat, repetitus etiam 
ab eo est per T. Quinctium Flamininum. Et quum 
tradendus Eomanis esset, venenum bibit et apud 
Libyssam in finibus Nicomediensium sepultus est. 

415 48. Tertium deinde bellum contra Carthaginem sus- 

Third Punic cipitur, anuo quiuquagesimo primo postquam 

B.C. 149. secundum Punicum bellum transactum erat. 

Hi profecti Carthaginem oppugnaverunt. Contra eos 


Hasdnibal, dux Carthaginiensium, dimicabat. Pha- 
mea, dux alius, equitatui praeerat Carthaginiensium. 420 
Scipio tunc, Scipionis Africani nepos, tribunus ibi 
militabat. Hujus apud omnes ingens metus et 
reverentia erat. Nam et paratissimus ad dimicandum 
et consultissimus habebatur. Itaque per eum multa 
prospere a consulibus gesta sunt, nee quidquam magis42 5 
vel Hasdrubal vel Phamea vitabant, quam contra earn 
Romanorum partem committere, ubi Scipio dimicabat. 

49. Quum igitur clarum Scipionis nomen esset, 
juvenis adhuc consul est factus et contra Carthaginem 
missus. Is eam cepit ac diruit. Spolia ibi inventa, 430 
quae variarum civitatum excidiis Carthago collegerat, 

et ornamenta urbium, quae sua recognoscebant, 
civitatibus Siciliae, Italiae, Africae reddidit. Ita Car- 
thago septingentesimo anno, postquam con- Destruction of 
dita erat, deleta est. Scipio nomen, quod b.c. 146.' 435 
avus ejus acceperat, meruit, scilicet ut propter virtutem 
etiam ipse Africanus junior vocaretur. 

50. Q. Pompeius deinde consul a Numantinis, 
quae Hispaniae civitas fuit opulentissima, superatus, 
pacem ignobilem fecit. Post eum C. Hostilius Man- 440 
cinus consul iterum cum Numantinis pacem fecit 
infamem, quam populus et senatus jussit infringi, atque 
ipsum ^lancinum hostibus tradi, ut in illo, quem 
auctorem foederis habebant, injuriam soluti foederis 
vindicarent. Post tantam igitur ignominiam, qua a 445 
Numantinis bis Eomani exercitus fuerant subjugati, 


P. Scipio Africanus secundo consul factus et ad 

Numantiam missus est. 51. Is primum militem 

vitiosum et igiia\Tim, exercendo magis quam puniendo, 

4^0 Destruction of sine aliqua acerbitate correxit; turn multas 

^ Numantia. ^^. . . . -in 

B.C. 133. Hispamae civitates partim bello cepit, par- 
tim in deditionem accepit ; postremo ipsam Numan- 
tiam, diu obsessam, fame confecit et a solo evertit, 
et reliquam provinciam in fidem accepit. Eo tempore 

455 Attains rex Asiae, frater Eumenis, mortuus est, 
heredemque populum Romanum reliquit. Ita imperio 
Romano per testamentum Asia accessit. 

52. P. Scipione Nasica et L. Calpurnio Bestia con- 
warwith sulibus, Jugurthae, Numidarum regi, bellum 

460 B.C. 111." illatum est, quod Adherbalem et Hiempsalem, 
Micipsae filios, fratres suos, reges et populi Romani 
amicos, interemisset. Missus adversus eum consul 
Calpurnius Bestia, corruptus regis pecunia, pacem cum 
eo flagitiosissimam fecit, quae a senatu improbata est. 

465 Postea contra eundem, insequenti anno, Spurius Post- 
umius Albinus profectus est. Is quocjue per fratrem 
ignominiose contra Numidas pugnavit. 53. Tertio 
missus Q. Caecilius Metellus consul exercitum ingenti 
severitate et moderatione correctum, quum niliil in 

470 quenquam cruentum faceret, ad disciplinam Romanam 
reduxit. Jugurtham variis proeliis vicit, elephantos 
ejus occidit vel cepit, multas civitates ipsius in dedi- 
tionem accepit. Et quum jam bello finem positurus 
csset, successum est ei a C. Mario. Is Juguilham et 


Bocchum, Mauritaniae regem, qui aiixilium Jugurthae475 
ferre coeperat, pariter superavit. 54. Aliquanta er 
ipse oppida Numidiae cepit, belloque tenninum posuit, 
capto Jugurtha per quaestorem suum Comelium 
Sullam, ingentem virum, tradente Boccho Jugurtham, 
qui pro eo ante pugnaverat. Et duo trium^thi de 480 
Jugurtha, primus per Metellum, secundus per Marium, 
acti sunt. Ante currum tamen Marii Jugurtha cum 
duobus filiis ductus est catenatus, et mox jussu Death of 
consulis in carcere strangulatus. b.c. 106. 


&b. Dum bellum in Numidia contra Jugurtham 485 
geritur, Eomani consules M. Manlius et Q. The cimbrUm 
Caepio a Cimbris et Teutonibus et Tigurinis b.c. 165. 
et Ambronibus, quae erant Germanorum et Gallorum 
gentes, \dcti sunt juxta flumen Ehodanum, et ingenti 
intemecione attriti, etiam castra sua et magnam 490 
partem exercitus perdidenmt. Timor Eomae grandis 
fuit, ne iterum Galli Romam venirent. Ergo Marius 
post victoriam Jugurthinam secundo consul est factus, 
bellumque ei contra Cimbros et Teutonas decretum 
est. Tertio quoque ei et quarto delatus est consulatus, 495 
quia bellum Cimbricum protrahebatur. Sed in quarto 
consulatu collegam habuit Q. Lutatium Catulum. bQ. 
Cum Cimbris itaque conflixit, et duobus proeliis du- 
centa millia hostium cecidit, octoginta miilia cepit et 


5ooducem eorum Teutobodum, propter quod meritum 
absens quinto consul est factus. Interea Cimbri et 
Teutones, quorum copia adhuc infinita erat, ad Italiam 
transierunt. Iterum a C. Mario et Q. Catulo contra 
eos dimicatum est, sed a Catuli parte felicius. Nam 

505 proelio, quod simul ambo gesserunt, centum quadra- 
ginta millia, aut in pugna, aut in fug^, caesa sunt, 
sexaginta millia capta. Eomani milites ex utroque 
exercitu trecenti perierunt. Tria et triginta Cimbris 
signa sublata sunt. Is belli finis fuit. Triumphus 

5ioutrique decretus est. 

57. Anno urbis conditae sexcentesimo sexagesimo 
The Civil and secuudo primum Eomae bellum civile 

Mithridatic Wars. ^ 

B.C. 88. commotum est, eodem anno etiam Mitn- 
ridaticum. Causam bello civili C. Marius sexies con- 

5 1 5 sul dedit. Nam quum Sulla consul contra Mithridaten 
gesturus bellum, qui Asiam et Achaiam occupaverat, 
mitteretur, isque exercitum in Campania paulisper 
teneret, ut belli socialis, quod intra Italiam gestum 
fuerat, reliquiae tollerentur, Marius afFectavit, ut ipse 

520 ad bellum Mithridaticum mitteretur. Qu^ re Sulla 
commotus cum exercitu ad urbem venit. 58. lUic 
contra Marium et Sulpicium dimicavit. Primus urbem 
Romam armatus ingressus est, Sulpicium interfecit, 
Marium fugavit, atque ita, consulibus ordinatis in 

525futurum annum Cn. Octavio et L. Cornelio Cinna, ad 
Asiam profectus est. Mithridates enim, qui Ponti rex 
erat, primo Nicomeden, amicum populi Eomani, 


Bithynia voluit expellere, senatuique mandavit, bellum 
se ei propter injurias, quas passus fuerat, illatunim. 
A senatu responsum est jVIithridati, si id faceret, 530 
fore ut bellum a Eomanis et ipse pateretur. Quare 
iratus Cappadociam statim occupavit, et ex ea Ario- 
barzanen, regem et amicum populi Eomani, fuga\at. 
59. Mox etiam Bithyniam invasit et Paphlago- 
niam, pulsis ex ea regibus, amicis populi Eomani, 535 
Pylaemene et Nicomede. Inde Ephesum contendit, 
et per omnem Asiam literas misit, ut, ubicunque 
inventi essent cives Eomani, uno die occiderentur. 
Postea commisso proelio contra Archelaum, Mithri- 
datis in Achaia ducem, ita sum vicit, ut ex centum 540 
viginti miilibus vix decern Archelao superessent, ex 
Sullae exercitu quattuordecim tantum homines inter- 
ficerentur. Hac pugna cognita, ^lithridates septua- 
ginta millia lectissima ex Asia Archelao misit, contra 
quern Sulla iterum commisit. Primo proelio quin-545 
decim millia hostium interfecta sunt. Secundo 
omnes Mithridatis copiae exstinctae sunt, Archelaus 
ipse triduo nudus in paludibus latuit. Hac re audita, 
Mithridates cum Sulla de pace agi jussit. 60. Sed 
quum legati a rege iVIithridate, qui pacem petebant, 550 
venissent, non aliter se daturum Sulla esse respondit, 
nisi rex, relictis iis, quae occupaverat, ad regnum 
suum rediisset. Postea tamen ad colloquium ambo 
venerunt. Pax inter eos ordinata est, ne Sulla ad 
bellum civile festinans a tergo periculum habere t. 555 


Nam dum Sulla in Achaia atque Asi^ Mithridatem 
vincit, Marius, qui fugatus erat, et Cornelius Cinna, 
unus ex consulibus, bellum in Italia reparaverunt, et 
ingressi urbem Eomam nobilissimos ex senatu et 

560 consulares viros interfecerunt, multos proscripserunt, 
ipsius Sullae domo eversa, filios et uxorem ad fugam 
compulerunt. 61. Uni versus reliquus senatus ex 
urbe fugiens ad Sullam in Graeciam venit, orans, ut 
patriae subveniret. Ille in Italiani trajecit, bellum 

565 civile gesturus adversus Norbanum et Scipionem con- 
sules. Et primo proelio Norbanum vicit non longe a 
Capua. Inde etiam ad Scipionem se convertit, et 
ante proelium totum ejus exercitum sine sanguine in 
deditionem accepit. Sed quum Romae mutati consules 

57oessent, Marius, Marii filius, ac Papirius Carbo con- 
sulatum accepissent, Sulla contra Marium juniorem 
dimicavit, et, viginti millibus ejus occisis, quadringentos 
de suis perdidit. Mox etiam urbem ingressus est. 
Marium, ]\Iarii filium, Praenesten persecutus, obsedit, 

575 et,^d-..iiiQi;tem compulit. 62. Cn. quoque Carbo, 
consul alter, ab Arimino ad Siciliam fugit, et ibi per 
Cn. Pompeium interfectus est, quem adolescentem 
Sulla atque annos unum et viginti natum, cognita ejus 
industrii, tantis exercitibus praefecerat, ut secundus a 

580 Sulla haberetur. Occiso ergo Carbone, Siciliam Pom- 
peius recepit. Transgressus inde ad Africam Domitium, 
Marianae partis ducem, et Hiarbam, regem Mauri- 
taniae, qui Domitio auxilium ferebat, occidit. Post 


liaec Sulla de Mithridate ingenti gloria triumphavit. 
Cn. etiam Pompeius, quod nulli Eomanorum tributum 585 
erat, quartum et ^dcesimum annum agens, de Africa 
triumphavit. Hunc finem habuerunt duo bella funes- 
tissima, Italicum, quod et sociale dictum est, et civile, 
quae ambo tracta sunt per annos decem. 

63. Inter jectis aliquot annis, mortuus est Nico-590 
medes, rex Bithyniae, et per testamen- TMrd Mithndatic 
tum populum Eomanum fecit heredem. b.c. 74. 
Mithridates, pace rupta, Bithyniam et Asiam mrsus 
voluit invadere. Adversus eum ambo consules missi 
variam habuere fortunam. Cotta apud Chalcedonem 595 
victus ab eo acie, etiam intra oppidum coactus est et 
obsessus. Sed quum se inde Mithridates Cyzicum 
transtulisset, ut, Cyzico capta, totam Asiam inva- 
deret, Lucullus ei alter consul occurrit. Ac dum 
Mithridates in obsidione Cyzici commoratur, ipse 600 
eum a tergo obsedit, fameque consumpsit, et multis 
proeliis vicit, et postremo Byzantium, quae nunc Con- 
stantiuopolis est, fugavit. . Navaii quoque proelio 
duces ejus Lucullus oppressit. Ita una hieme et 
aestate a Lucullo centum fere millia regis exstincta6o5 

64. Dum haec geruntur, piratae omnia maria infes- 
tabant ita, ut Romanis, toto orbe victoribus, sola 
Davigatio tuta non esset. Quare id bellum Cn. 
Pompeio decretum est. Quod intra paucos menses 6 1 o 
ingenti et feKcitate et celeritate coufecit. Mox ei 


delatum bellum etiam contra regem Mithridaten et 
Tigranen. Quo suscepto, Mithridaten in Armenia 
minore nocturno proelio vicit, castra diripuit; quadra- 

615 ginta millibus ejus occisis, viginti tantum de exercitu 
suo perdidit et duos centuriones. Mithridates cum 
uxore fugit et duobus comitibus. Neque multo post, 
quum in sues saeviret, seditione Pharnacis, filii sui, 
apud milites ad mortem coactus, venenum hausit. 

620 Hunc finem habuit Mithridates. Periit autem apud 
Bosporum, vir ingentis industriae consihique. 

Qb. M. Tullio Cicerone oratore et C. Antonio 
Conspiracy of cousuHbus, L. Sergius CatiHua, nobiHs- 

Catiliue. . . . . , . .. . . . , 

B.C. 63. simi generis vir, sea mgenu pravissimi, ad 

625 delendam patriam conjuravit cum quibusdam, claris 

quidem, sed audacibus viris. A Cicerone urbe expul- 

sus est. Socii ejus deprehensi in carcere strangulati 

sunt. Ab Antonio, altero consule, CatiHna ipse proelio 

victus est et interfectus. 

630 QQ' Julius Caesar, qui postea imperavit, cum L. 

Caesar's foreign Bibulo cousul est factus. Decreta est ei 

^B.c. 56.* Gallia et lUyricum cum legionibus decern. 

Is primo vicit Helvetios, qui nunc Sequani appellantur, 

deinde vincendo per bella gravissima usque ad Ocea- 

635 num Britannicum processit. Domuit autem annis 

novem fere omnem Galliam, quae inter Alpes, flumen 

Rhodanum, Ehenum et Oceanum est, et circuitu patet 

ad bis et tricies centena millia passuum. Britannis 

mox beilum intulit, quibus ante eum ne nomen quidem 


Romanorum cognitum erat, et eos quoque victos, 640 
obsidibus acceptis, stipendiarios fecit. Galliae autem 
tributi nomine annuum imperavit sestertium quadrin- 
gentieSj Germanosque trans Ehenum aggressus im- 
manissimis proeliis vicit. Inter tot successus ter male 
pugnavit, apud Arvemos semel praesens et absens in 645 
Germania bis. Nam legati ejus duo, Titurius et 
Aurunciileius, per insidias caesi sunt. 

67. Hinc jam bellum ci\dle successit exsecrandum 
et lacrimabile, quo praeter calamitates, civil war between 

... . , . Caesar and Pompey. 

quae in proeliis acciderunt, etiam b.c. 49. 650 

populi Eomani fortuna mutata est. Caesar enim 
rediens ex Gallia victor coepit poscere alterum con 
sulatum atque ita, ut sine dubio aliquo ei defer- 
retur. Contradictum est a Marcello consule, a Bibulo, 
a Pompeio, a Catone, jussusque dimissis exercitibus655 
ad urbem redire. Propter quam injuriam ab Arimino, 
ubi milites congregatos habebat, adversum patriam 
cum exercitu venit. Consul es cum Pompeio sena- 
tusque omnis atque universa nobilitas ex urbe fugit et 
in Graeciam transiit. Apud Epirum, Macedonian!, 660 
Achaiam, Pompeio duce, senatus contra Caesarem 
bellum paravit. 68. C^ssar vacuam urbem ingressus 
dictatorem se fecit. Inde Hispanias petiit Ibi 
Pompeii exercitus validissimos et fortis- g^ttie of Pharsaiia. 
simos cum tribus ducibus, L. Afranio, b.c. 48. 55^ 

M. Petreio, M. Varrone, superavit. Inde regressus 
in Graeciam transiit, adversum Pompeiiim dimicavit. 


Primo proelio victus est et fugatus, evasit tamen, quia 
nocte interveniente Pompeius sequi noluit, dixitque 

^7° Caesar, nee Pompeium scire vincere, et illo tantum die 
se potuisse superari. Deinde in Thessalia apud Phar- 
saliam, productis utrimque ingentibus copiis, dimica- 
verunt. 69. Nunquam adhuc Komanae copiae in 
Death of Pompey. ^^^"^ ^^^^6 Hiajores, neque melioribus 

675 B.C. 48. ducibus convenerant, totum terrarum 
orbem facile subacturae, si contra barbaros ducerentur. 
Pugnatum tamen est ingenti contentione, victusque 
ad postremum Pompeius et castra ejus direpta sunt. 
Ipse fugatus Alexandriam petiit, ut a rege Aegypti, 

680 cui tutor a senatu datus fuerat propter juvenilem ejus 
aetatem, acciperet auxilia. Qui, fortunam magis quam 
amicitiam secutus, occidit Pompeium, caput ejus et 
annulum Caesari misit. Quo conspecto, Caesar etiam 
lacrimas fudisse dicitur, tanti viri intuens caput et 

685 generi quondam sui. 

70. Mox Caesar Alexandriam venit. Ipsi quoque 
Ptolemaeus parare voluit insidias, qua causa regi 
belluni illatum est. Victus in Nilo periit, inventum- 
que est corpus ejus cum lorica aurea. Caesar Alexan- 

690 dria potitus regnum Cleopatrae dedit, Ptolemaei sorori. 
Rediens inde Caesar Pharnacem, Mithridatis Magni 
filium, qui Pompeio in auxilium apud Thessaliam 
iuerat, rebellantem in Ponto atque multas populi 
Eomani provincias occupantem, vicit acie, et postea ad 

695 mortem coegit 


71. Postea Caesar Romam regressus quarto se con- 
sulem tecit, et statim ad Hispanias est War with Pompey'a 
profectus, ubi Pompeii filii, Cnaeus et b.c. 45. 
Sextus, ingens helium reparaverant. Multa proelia 
fuerunt, ultimum apud Mundam civitatem, in quo 700 
adeo Caesar paene victus est, ut, fugientibus suis, se 
voluerit occidere, ne post tantam rei militaris gloriam 

in potestatem adolescentium natus annos sex et quin- 
quaginta veniret. Denique, reparatis suis, vicit. Ex 
Pompeii filiis major occisus est, minor fugit. 705 

72. Inde Caesar, bellis civilibus toto orbe compositis, 
Romam rediit. As^ere insolentius coepit et Death of 

, . Caesar 

contra consuetudinem Romanae libertatis. B.c.44. 
Quum ergo et honores ex su^ voluntate praestaret, qui 
a populo antea deferebantur, nee senatui ad se venienti 710 
assurgeret, aliaque regia ac paene tyrannica faceret, 
conjuratum est in eum a sexaginta vel amplius sena- 
toribus equitibusque Romanis. Praecipui fuerunt inter 
conjuratos duo Bruti, ex eo genere Bruti, qui primus 
Romae consul fuerat et reges expulerat, C. Cassius et7i5 
Servilius Casca. Ergo Caesar, quum senatus die inter 
ceteros venisset ad curiam, tribus et viginti \'ulneribus 
confossus est, 


73. Anno urbis septingentesimo fere ac nono, inter- 
fecto Caesare, bella civilia rej^arata sunt. Per- Antony and -20 
cussoribus enim Caesaris senatus favebat. b.c. '43 


Antonius consul partium Caesaris civilibus bellis op- 
primere eos conabatur. Ergo, turbata republica, multa 
Antonius scelera committens a senatu hostis judicatus 

725 est. Missi ad eum persequendum duo consules, Pansa 
et Hirtius, et Octavianus adolescens, annos decern et 
octo natus, Caesaris nepos, quern ille testamento here- 
dem reliquerat et nomen suum ferre jusserat. Hie est, 
qui postea Augustus est dictus et rerum potitus. 

73oQuare profecti contra Antonium tres duces vicerunt 
eum. Evenit tamen, ut victores consules ambo more- 
rentur. Quare tres exercitus uni Caesari Aug-usto 
paruerunt. 74. Fugatus Antonius, amisso exercitu, 
confugit ad Lepidum, qui Caesari magister equitum 

73c fuerat et turn copias militum grandes habebat. A quo 
susceptus est. Mox, Lepido operam dante, Caesar cum 
Antonio pacem fecit, et, quasi vindicaturus patris sui 
mortem, a quo per testamentum fuerat adoptatus, 
Eomam cum exercitu profectus, extorsit, ut sibi vicesimo 

7 40 anno consulatus daretur. Senatum proscripsit cum 

Antonio et Lepido et rempublicam armis tenere coepit. 

Per hos etiam Cicero orator occisus est multique alii 

nobiles. 75. Interea Brutus et Cassius, interfectores 

Battle of Caesaris, insrens bellum moverunt. Erant 

742 B.C. 42. emm per Macedomam et Orientem multi exer- 
citus, quos occupaverant. Profecti sunt igitur contra 
eos Caesar Octavianus Augustus et M. Antonius, re- 
manserat enim ad defendendam Italiam Lepidus. 
Apud Philippos, Macedoniae urbem, contra eos pugna- 


venmt. Primo proelio victi sunt Antonius et Caesar, 750 
periit tamen dux nobilitatis Cassius ; secundo Biutum 
et infinitam nobilitatem, quae cum illis bellum gesserat, 
victam interfecenint. Ac sic inter eos divisa est res- 
publica, ut Augustus Hispanias, Gallias et Italiam 
teneret, Antonius Asiam, Pontum, Orientem. 76. In- 755 
terim a Sexto Pompeio, Cn. Pompeii Magni filio, ingens 
bellum in Sicilia commotum est, iis, qui Death of 

. . Sextus Pompeius. 

superfuerantex partibus Bruti Cassuque, b c 45. 
ad eum confluentibus. Bellatum est per Caesarem 
Augustum Octa\ianum et M. Antonium adversus76o 
Sextum Pompeium. ^ Pax postremo convenit. Interim 
Pompeius pacem rupit, et navali proelio Wctus, fugiens 
ad Asiam, interfectus est. Antonius, qui Asiam Orien- 
temque tenebat, repudiata sorore Caesaris Augusti 
Octaviani, Cleopatram, reginam Aeg}^ti, duxit uxorem. 765 
Contra Persas ipse etiam pugnavit. Primis eos proeliis 
\icit, regrediens tamen fame et pestilentia labora\'it et, 
quum instarent Parthi fugienti, ipse pro ^^cto recessit. 
77. Hie quoque ingens bellum ciWle commo\'it, cogente 
^ixore Cleopatra, regina Aegypti, dum cupiditate cattie of 7 70 
muliebri optat etiam in urbe regnare. Victus b.c. 31. 
est ab Augusto navali pugna clara et illustri apud 
Actium, qui locus in Epiro est, ex qua fugat in 
Aegyptum et, desperatis rebus, quum omnes ad August- 
um transirent, ipse se interemit. Cleopatra sibi aspi- 775 
dem admisit et veneno ejus exstincta est. Aegyptus 
per Octavianum Augustum imperio Romano adjecta 


est, praepositusque ei Cn. Cornelius Gallus. Hunc 

primum Aegyptus Romanum judicem habuit. Ita. 

780 Octavianus bcllistoto oibe confectis, OctavianusAufifUstus 

' Emperor. t- i i • 

B.C. 27. Eomam rediit, duodecimo anno, postquam 
consul fuerat. Ex eo rempublicam per quadraginta 
et quattuor annos solus obtinuit. Ante enim duodecim 
annis cum Antonio et Lepido tenuerat. Ita ab initio 
785 principatus ejus usque ad finem quinquaginta sex anni 
fuere. Obiit autem septuagesimo sexto anno morte 
communi in oppido Campaniae Atella. Romae m 
campo Martio sepultus est. 


1. Romulus was the son of a Vestal Virgin. 

2. He built a city on the Palatine hill. 

3. A small city was built in the 394:th year. 

4. Romulus had a brother Remus. 


1. The Senators will call the city Rome. 

2. He receives one hundred virgins into the city. 

3. He founded a state on account of the multitude. 

4. He himself had not a wife. 

5. They will bear off one hundred of their virgins. 


1. All these nations surrounded the city. 

2. The Sabines will stir up a war. 

3. There were tempests for five days. 

4. While he was reigning the seventh year was com- 


5. After a war had been stirred up the neighbouring 

nations were conquered. 



1. The son of Pompilius will wage a great war. 

2. The wars did not benefit the empire. 

3. Eomulus was thought to be a god. 

4. The king will divide the year into ten months. 

5. The temples of Eome were thought to be sacred. 


1. The city, being struck by lightning, was burnt. 

2. The Eoman senators will conquer the Alban 

thieves ; 

3. of whom some will not wage war with the sena- 

tors, others will be absent from the city. 

4. The house has been enlarged, and is six miles from 


6 and 7. 

1. They fought against Numa's nephew. 

2. Mount Aventine was added to the State. 

3. Ancus Martius will receive the kingdom after 

Tullus HostiHus. 

4. A circus having been built at Rome, Tarquinius 

established games. 

5. On account of the circus the 'games will remain in 

our memory. 

6. Tarquinius Priscus was the first to make walls and 

sewers at Rome. 

7. They were the first to enter the city in triumph. 

8. The Sabines also conquered the same (man). 



1. Servius Tullius was the son of a noble woman. 

2. Servius Tullius, the Koman king, subdued the 


3. He enlarged the city by joining three hills (to it). 

4. He was the first also who subdued the Sabines. 

5. Hitherto the census had been unknown throughout 

the whole world. 


1. All the Romans were entered on the census (list). 

2. Servius Tullius was killed by the wicked act of 

his son-in-law, the son of a king. 

3. The son and daughter of a king killed SerWus 

Tullius in the forty-fifth year. 

4. Under Servius Tullius the King, Rome vriW have 

84,000 citizens. 

5. Tarquinius will have the daughter of a king for a 



1. Tarquinius Superbus was the last of the Roman 


2. Ardea was situated eighteen miles from the city of 


3. His son Tarquinius inflicted an injury on the wife 

of the most noble Collatinus. 

4. The son of Tarquinius -wronged the wife of 


5. The wife of Collatinus, whom the younger Tar- 

quinius had wronged, killed herself openly. 



1. They took the kingdom away from Tarquinius. 

2. The gates having been closed, the king with his wife 

and children was shut out. 

3. On this account Tarquinius fled with his wife and 


4. The king will leave his army in the city. 

5. The king's children will flee into the city. 


1. It is resolved that the Consul do not hold the 

power longer than a year. 

2. Collatinus began to excite the people. 

3. If one consul wishes to be wicked he is restrained 

by the other. 

4. After the king had been driven out Collatinus was 


5. It was resolved that he should not have the power 

more than a year. 


1. It is resolved that no one shall remain in the city. 

2. All therefore removed from the city. 

3. A man who was called Valerius will be made 


4. The dignity made him too insolent. 

5. Having collected many men Tarquinius stirs up a 


6. He fights a battle in order that he may be restored 

to power. 

1. However Brutus and^Talj^inius kill one anoUier, 
in turn. \^/^v 

2. Tarquinius did not withdraw 


3. Brutus was mourned for by the Roman matrons as 

the defender of their chastity. 
i. Man)^ nations were collected from all sides. 

5. The dictatorship was a new dignity at Eome. 

6. The dictator withdraws as a conqueror from the 



1. The Romans drove Quintius Martins from the 


2. The Volsci, whose city Quintius had taken, received 

the Roman leader. 

3. They themselves gave him help against the 


4. When he had come up as far as the city of Rome 

he withdrew his army. 

5. Being angry he rejected the messengers who were 

seeking peace. 

6. But he was overcome by the weeping and prayers 

of his mother Yeturia and his wife Volumnia, 
who came to him out of the city. 


1. When K. Fabius was consul a war was undertaken 
against the Veientes. 




2. Those who were of the Fabian gens set out alone 

against the enemy. 

3. Three hundred noble men will fall in the battle. 

4. One was not taken to battle on account of his 


5. "When Fabius is consul, wars will be undertaken. 


1. Cincinnatus used to possess a field of two acres. 

2. He is found ploughing, he kills the enemy and 

frees the army. 

3. Ten men called Decemvirs received the chief 


4. The Koman army was besieged on Mount Algidus. 

5. The Eomans will cultivate (their) fields with their 

own hands. 


1. The Romans sent Camillus (as) dictator against the 


2. The Veientes will be conquered in battle. 

3. The Romans had besieged the most ancient city of 


4. I shall stir up envy against Camillus. 

5. The booty being badly divided, the Romans ex- 

pelled Camillus. 

6. The city having been captured, the Romans divided 

the spoil. 


1. The Senonian Gauls came and seized the city. 


2. The Romans were not able to defend anything 

except the Capitol. 

3. They blockaded the city and the Romans were dis- 

tressed with hunger. 

4. After they had been conquered by Camillus they 


5. Camillus followed and recovered the gold which 

he had given them. 

6. Afterwards all the standards were recovered. 


1. The Gauls withdrew and encamped on the other 

side of the river Anio. 

2. A Gaul challenged T. Manlius, one of the most 

noble senators, to single combat. 

3. T. Manlius took away his golden collar and placed 

it on his own neck. 

4. The surname Torquatus was given to him and to 

his posterity for ever. 

5. The Gauls will have been conquered by C. 



1. The Roman legions set out against the Gauls 

under the leadership of Camillus. 

2. A certain Gaul having challenged the best man 

of the Romans to single combat, M. Valerius 
offered himself. 

3. AYhen he was armed a raven settled on his helmet. 

4. This raven struck the Gaul's eyes so that he killed 



5. Therefore the Gaul was not killed by Valerius alona 

6. This victory gave him the name Corvinus, 


1. The master of the horse began to be powerful. 

2. Q. Fabius Maximus fought a battle, the dictator 

being absent. 

3. The Eomans will have set out to this war under 

the leadership of L. Papirius Cursor. 

4. He found an opportunity and returned to Rome. 

5. Q. Fabius Maximus was not condemned to death 

by the people. 

6. The Samnites might have fought successfully. 


1. When the Romans had been conquered by the 

Samnites they were sent under the yoke. 

2. The Samnites made peace with the Romans who 

had been conquered. 

3. The Romans received a great disgrace at the 

Caudine Forks. 

4. In that year the Appian Way was constructed by 


5. The Samnites will have shut up the Romans in the 



1. Having been made consul, he declared war against 

the Tarentines. 

2. In order to bring them help Pyrrhus comes into 



3. An enemy from over the sea then, for the first 

time, fou2:ht with the Romans. 

4. The Romans sent P. Valerius Lae^us against 


5. PjTihus' scouts were taken and led through the 

Roman camp. 

6. They were sent away to report to Pyrrhus what 

the Romans were doing. 


1. The elephants from over the sea were a help to the 


2. Then Laevinus flees and night puts an end {dare 

finem) to the combat. 

3. Pyrrhus began to take many Romans. 

4. All the Romans who were slain were buried by 


5. The fierce faces of the dead were seen by P}Trhua 

6. Pyrrhus says that he is able to be lord of the whole 



1. The city having been laid waste by fire, Pyrrhus 

came to Praeneste. 

2. The army fled through fear of the elephants. 

3. He honourably received the ambassadors sent about 

restoring the army. 

4. The captives will be sent to Rome. 

5. The captives followed the consul from tlie city into 


6. The Samnites will betake themselves to Pyrrhus. 



1. Fabricius, one of the ambassadors, admired Pyrrhus. 

2. I know that you are so poor that you are despised 

by the Eomans. 

3. Pyrrhus promised a quarter of the kingdom to 


4. He bribed the Eomans to seek peace. 

5. I shall send Cineas to seek peace on fair terms. 

6. Fabricius, a poor man, was not despised by Pyrrhus. 


1. The King of Epirus was not able to bril^e Fabricius 

by promising him a fourth part of the kingdom. 

2. Pyrrhus' doctor promised to kill his lord with 


3. But Fabricius would not give him poison. 

4. Wherefore he was bound and led back to Pyrrhus. 
6. It is very difficult to turn Fabricius from honesty. 
6. He is reported to have said, " I can turn the sun 

from his course." 


1. Fabricius did not conquer the king of Sicily. 

2. The king then fled to Sicily with his army. 

3. Ourius brought to Eome four elephants, which the 

Eomans dreaded. 

4. Curius was made consul with Cornelius Lentulus. 
6. They set out against Pyrrhus and conquered his 

6. Pyrrhus ordered his army to be led back to 



1. The Eomans had not fought on the sea. 

2. They prepared beaked vessels which they called 

Liburnian (galleys). 

3. Duilius the consul is reported to have said, " I will 

conquer the Carthaginian general." 

4. And in the fifth year of the war he did beat the 


5. Thirty ships were taken by the Romans. 

6. This victory on the sea was very pleasing to the 



1. L. Manlius Volso and M. Atilius Regulus were 

afterwards made consuls. 

2. They carried the war over into Africa, and a battle 

was fought on the sea. 

3. They conquered, but lost many ships. 

4. Pyrrhus had fled to Tarentum, and Hamilcar fled 

as far as Carthage. 

5. After many ships had been destroyed, the Romans 

returned to Rome. 

6. Tvventy-seven thousand captives were led back by 

the Roman general. 


1. Regulus granted peace on very hard conditions. 

2. The Lacedaemonians sent an army as a help to the 


3. The Romans sought peace from the Lacedaemonian 

leader Xantippus. 


4. *Only two thousand of the whole Roman army 


5. The Lacedaemonians threw Eegukis into chains. 

6. Regulus the Roman was unwilling to be captured, 


1. Metellus was the leader of the Romans in Sicily. 

2. He brought six elephants into Sicily. 

3. The general might have led the army to Rome 

with great ceremony. 

4. The elephants were wandering through the camp 

at night. 

5. Twenty thousand of the enemy coming into Sicily 

were captured. 


1. After this battle the Carthaginian general returned 

to Rome. 

2. The Romans made an exchange of prisoners with 

the Carthaginians. 

3. The Carthaginians asked Regulus to return to the 


4. He says that war is a great evil {malum). 

5. Regulus, when he had returned to Carthage, ceased 

to be a Roman. 

6. Being brought into the Senate he said that he had 

returned to the city to ask for peace. 


1. I shall advise the Senate not to make peace with 
the Carthaginians 


2. The consul advised the Senate to make peace with 

the Carthaginians. 

3. After seeking peace Regulus returned to Carthage. 

4. He advises the Carthaginians, seeking })eace, to 

return to the city. 

5. The consul said that he would not be a slave to the 


6. He said that he could not hold the position of an 

honourable citizen at Carthage. 


1. The Africans were preparing twenty-three ships 

against Catulus. 

2. The Romans had lost twenty-two ships in a former 


3. Twenty-five African ships were sunk by the 


4. They took also 32,000 prisoners. 

5. The valour of the Roman army was unlimited. 

6. The Romans brought back to Rome a great weight 

of gold and silver. 


1. The Carthaginians sank twelve vessels of the 

Roman fleet. 

2. Soon afterwards Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, 

besieged Saguntum. 

3. The Romans sent notice to Hannibal to abstain 

from war. 

4. The Romans are sending notice to Hannibal to 

abstain from war. 


5. The ambassadors come to Carthage to seek peace. 

6. The ambassadors came to Carthage to seek peace. 


1. Tiberius Sempronius declared war against the Car- 


2. Tiberius Sempronius is reported to have declared 

war against the Carthaginians. 

3. Hannibal sent his brother Hasdrubal into Spain. 

4. Hannibal left 20,000 infantry in Spain. 

5. Hannibal is said to have crossed the Alps with 

80,000 infantry. 

6. On the arrival of Hannibal the soldiers betook 

themselves to the camp. 


1. Scipio meets the Carthaginians ; his men flee and 

he himself is wounded. 

2. A battle having been fought near the Trebia, Sem- 

pronius Gracchus returned to the camp. 

3. The Carthaginians slew 25,000 Eomans. 

4. He defers the fight and the enemy is conquered. 

5. An opportunity of fighting was found. 

6. Flaminius met the Carthaginians near the Trebia. 


1. Both the villages were called Cannae. 

2. I shall advise the consuls to send a skilful general 

into battle. 

3. By delajdng the battle you will conquer. 


4. A battle was fought at Cannse in the 540th year. 

5. He adi^ised the consul to delay the battle. 

6. A city was founded in Apulia. 


1. The Romans suffered great loss in the battle near 


2. 3,500 cavalry were either captured or slain, 

3. Hannibal sent three pecks of gold rings to Carthage. 

4. The consul with twenty senators perished in that 


5. The enemy were dragging off the rings from the 

hands of our cavalry. 

6. No senators were wounded in that great battle. 


1. Hannibal with his cavalry was approaching the 


2. They slew his brother Hasdrubal. 

3. After a consul had come into the camp, Hannibal 

withdrew into the city. 

4. The two Scipios ha\ang been conquered, the con- 

sul will remain in the camp. 

5. The enemy was conquered more through their own 

terror than through the bravery of the Romans. 


1. Publius Cornelius Scipio, the son of Publius Scipio, 

was twenty-four years old. 

2. The Africans will keep all their gold in New 



3. The Africans were removing all their gold into 

New Carthage. 

4. He is thought to be the first man of his age. 

5. Scipio was sent to carry on war in Spain. 

6. There is something divine in a good man. 


1. He was the son of Masinissa, the King of the 


2. He is said to be the son of Masinissa, the King of 

the Numidians. 

3. The Carthaginians are said to have left Italy- 


4. Hannibal, the Carthaginian, made a friendship with 

Scipio, the Eoman general. 

5. When this was heard, he was ordered to retire into 


6. Scipio is said to have freed Italy. 


1. The consul sent a scout to report to the genera! 

what he had seen. 

2. I shall give the consuls a breakfast and send them 


3. Three scouts were sent by Hannibal to Scipio's 


4. I have hardly seen more skilful generals. 

5. The city being captured Scipio led his forces to 


6. After breakfast the scouts were led through the 




1. The Punic War was soon ended. 

2. A war with the Macedonians will follow. 

3. The Carthaginians will have joined themselves to 

the enemy after the battle. 

4. After the founding of the city, Antiochus was made 


5. I will leave the city for fear it should be handed 

over to the enemy. 

6. The enemy having been put to flight, the Romans 

granted peace to Antiochus. 


1. A general sets out as legate to the consul. 

2. Scipio will conquer Hannibal in a naval battle. 

3. A king of Magnesia, a city of Asia, was slain in 

that battle. 

4. Fifty men had been given to the consul Cornelius 


5. The army flees that it may not be taken by Han- 


6. The Romans fought a great battle near ISIagnesia. 


1. War has been undertaken against Carthage. 

2. Hannibal was in command of the cavalry which 

was defeated. 

3. He is considered most skilful in ruling. 

4. The city was successfully besieged by Scipio 


5. Hannibal avoided that part of the Roman army 

where Scipio was fighting. 

6. The fear of another general was very great. 


1. Scipio was made consul when a young man. 

2. The city of Carthage was destroyed by him. 

3. The Carthaginians collect the spoils which they 

recognise as their own. 

4. They afterwards destroyed the ornaments which 

they found there. 
6. Scipio, the Roman general, was called Africanus. 
6. The Romans recognised the valour of all their 



1. After this ignoble peace, the Romans restored the 

spoils to the enemy. 

2. The consul commands them to break the treaty. 

3. The author of the treaty was handed over to the 


4. The Romans were again avenging the broken 


5. The disgrace was so great that the author of the 

treaty was punished. 

6. The Romans made peace with the Numantini, who 

were a people of Spain. 


I. You will not correct soldiers by punishing (them). 


2. The cities of Spain were partly taken by the army 

and partly worn out by famine. 

3. The city, having been besieged, was overthrown. 

4. At the death of Attalus, the Romans were left his 


5. By giving the province to the Romans, Attalus 

made them very rich. 

6. Without the will of Attalus the Romans would not 

have been very rich. 


1. The Romans made war against Jugurtha, because 

he slew his brothers. 

2. Adherbal and Hiempsal, friends of the Romans, 

were slain by Jugurtha. 

3. The consul makes a peace (of) which the Senate 


4. It is a most disgraceful thing to bribe a soldier 

with money. 

5. The brothers of Jugurtha, king of the Xumidians, 

were slain by him. 

6. In the consulship of Bestia, peace was made "vnth 



1. Metellus, although he corrected the army with 

great severity, put no one to death. 

2. When many cities had been captured an end was 

put to the war. 

3. Metellus wiU be succeeded by Marius. 

4. Jugurtha having been conquered, the elephants 

were slain or captured. 


5. I am about to put an end to that bloody war. 

6. The consul began to correct the army. 


1. The town of Numantia will be taken, and an end 

will be put to the war. 

2. Jugurtha was betrayed to the Eomans by Bocchus. 

3. The consuls led Jugurtha in chains through the 


4. The general captured two cities, the first through 

Metellus, the second through Marius. 

5. In the consulship of Marius two triumphs were 


6. By order of the consuls, the general will celebrate 

a triumph. 


1. WTiilst the Eomans carried on war in Numidia, 

they were beaten with great slaughter by the 

2. Marius defeated the Cimbri and Teutones, who 

were tribes of the Gauls. 

3. There is a great fear among the enemy that they 

will be beaten by the Romans. 

4. I shall have Catulus (as) my colleague. 

5. The Romans will offer the consulship to Marius. 

6. A large part of the army was destroyed near the 

river Rhone. 

1. The Romans made Marius general in his absence. 


2. A more successful battle was fought in Italy. 

3. Whilst Marms engages with the Cimbri, both the 

consuls pass over into Italy. 

4. Either Marius or Catulus captured the standards. 

5. Out of either army many were slain. 

6. For this service the Romans will make Marius a 



1. In the sixty-second year after the foundation of the 

city the Romans stirred up war. 

2. Sulla, when consul, stirred up war at Rome. 

3. The consul will be sent to carry on the war in 


4. Marius was made consul six times. 

5. I strive to be made consul. 

6. The Social War was carried on in Italy. 


1. He was the first to set out from the city. 

2. I shall enter the city of Rome in arms. 

3. Cinna slew Sulpicius, who had been appointed con 

sul for the ensuing year. 

4. Mithridates declared to the Senate that he would 

banish the consul from Pontus. 

5. If the Romans were to do that, they would suffer 

many injuries. 

6. Answer was returned to me, that it would come to 

pass that the consul would be driven out of the 



1. The kings will be driven out of the city, and will 

be sent to Ephesus. 

2. Wherever Sulla fought his army conquered. 

3. Out of Sulla's army only one hundred survived. 

4. When the letter is sent, I shall hasten to Ephesus. 

5. When the affair was known, the kings were driven 

out of the city of Ephesus. 

6. The general orders the battle to be commenced. 


1. Messengers were sent by King Mithridates suing 

for peace. 

2. Messengers are sent by King Mithridates to sue for 


3. Sulla replied that he would return to Eome. 

4. Sulla replies that he will not return to Rome. 

5. Both the generals hasten to the camp, which they 


6. The house of one of the consuls was overthrown. 


1 . The Senate prays Sulla to help his country. 

2. Sulla will fight against Marius and destroy his army. 

3. But he will lose many of his own men. 

4. He replies that he -will not lose many of his own 

6. Sulla comes to Italy to besiege Praeneste. 
6. I shall help Sulla when about to carry on a civil 




1. When Pompey was twenty years old he was placed 

in command of the army. 

2. Carbo replies that he will bring^help to Domitius. 

3. He came to Domitius that he might bring help to 


4. This war was protracted for twenty-one years. 

5. His industry was so great that he was placed over 

(praeficio) both armies. 

6. The glory of Sulla was great, but that of Pompey 

was greater. 


1. At the death of Nicomedes the peace was broken. 

2. The king made his own son his heir. 

3. The consul met him near Chalcedon. 

4. And while he was besieging him he killed himself. 

5. Lucullus replies that the army is being wasted with 


6. Nearly a thousand men were killed in one battle. 


1. While this was being done, war was declared 

against Pompey. 

2. And when it was undertaken, the enemy was con- 

quered in a battle by night. 

3. Mithridates lost his army together with two cen- 


4. When he had fled to the city the king took poison. 

5. He was a man of greater industry but of less skill 


6. The camp near the Bosphorus was destroyed in a 
sedition among the soldiery. 

1. The consul will .banish from the city Cicero, a man 

of very noble disposition. 

2. He will be sent to destroy the city. 

3. The city was taken and destroyed. 

4. He was sent to apprehend the consul. 

5. The consul will capture and slay Catiline. 

6. Catiline will be banished from the city by the consul. 


1. Afterwards Caesar was made king. 

2. The Helvetii whom Caesar conquered were after- 

wards called Sequani. 

3. In three years Caesar will have conquered almost 

all the Germans. 

4. Not even Caesar would have conquered the 


5. The ambassadors were put to death in the absence 

of the consul. 

6. War was declared against the Britons, and the 

legates, having fought three unsuccessful battles, 
were slain. 


1. A disaster befel the consul when returning from 


2. The consulship was offered to Caesar, so that he 

might prepare for war in Gaul. 


3. If Bibulus is consul, I shall not return to the 


4. Caesar began to demand that the Senate should not 

declare war. 

5. Under the leadership of Marcellus the fortune of 

the Roman army changed. 

6. Caesar had been opposed by all the Senate. 


1. Having entered the city, Caesar will demand the 


2. WTien night comes on, the enemy will return to the 


3. Caesar said that he did not wish to pursue the 


4. The consuls say that they mil cross over into 


5. The people say that they will make him dictator. 

6. The general said that the army had been put to 



1. Caesar said that he had never before led a greater 


2. A battle was fought and the consuls were slain. 

3. I shall ask to receive help from the Senate. 

4. Pompey is about to destroy the camp. 

5. Caesar was said to have shed tears on account of 

his good fortune. 

6. By reason of his (good) fortune the Romans made 

him consul. 



1. Caesar says that he will come to Alexandria to de- 

clare war against the king. 

2. I shed tears when I beheld the body of the consul. 

3. "We gained possession of the enemy's camp (occt^pc). 

4. Caesar wishes to be of assistance to Cleopatra. 

5. Phamaces was conquered and put to death. 

6. The people gave the consul a golden cuirass. 


1 . Caesar sets out to Spain to renew the war there. 

2. The consuls fled that they might not be slain by 

the enemy. 

3. His renown in warfare was so great that he was 

made consul four times. 

4. When he was fifty years old he had gained great 

renown {consequor). 

5. Caesar said that he would set out to Munda. 

6. Out of Caesar's many battles the last was greatest. 


1. Caesar acted most arrogantly at Eome. 

2. Therefore the rest conspired against Caesar. 

3. The people will confer honours according to their 

own will. 

4. He used not to rise to the king. 

5. Twenty-three Eomans will have been driven out. 

6. Caesar received twenty-five wounds from the con- 




1. The two consuls will attempt to set out to Rome. 

2. Caesar's assassins committed many crimes. 

3. They ordered Caesar's nephews to bear his name. 

4. He replies that Caesar will leave his nephew his 

heir by will. 

5. It turned out that the enemy was defeated in the 

civil war. 

6. When many crimes had been committed, they were 

considered to be enemies by the consuls. 


1. When both the armies had been lost, the consuls 

made peace. 

2. Many other nobles vnW set out with the army. 

3. Caesar will force the Senate to give him two armies. 

4. Caesar adopted his nephew who was eighteen years 


5. Caesar will receive large forces from Lepidus. 

6. The Romans are about to avenge Caesar's death. 


1. They will remain in Italy to defend the cities. 

2. Augustus and Antony will set out against Caesar's 

murderers, whom they will put to death. 

3. The State will have been divided between Augustus 

and Antony. 

4. Many nobles who had been conquered were slain 

in this battle. 


5. Philippi, a city of Macedonia, was taken by the 


6. He replied that Italy would be defended by 



1. They will stir up a great war in Sicily. 

2. After the peace was broken, a battle was fought by 

Pompey and Augustus. 

3. Being conquered, he retreated from the first 

i. Those who remained suffered from the pestilence. 

5. He had married the Queen of Egypt himself. 

6. They pressed the Romans hard as they were 



1. He desires to go over to Augustus. 

2. Cleopatra, despairing of peace, kills herself. 

3. He placed Gallus over a city which was in Egypt, 
i. The Romans desired to have this man as a ruler 


5. The Romans used to bury their generals in the 

Campus Martins. 

6. The Master urging you on {cogo\ you have come 

to the end. 


2. Vestalls vlrginis. One of the \argin priestesses of the 
goddess Vesta, whose duty it was to keep up the fire 
perpetually burning on the altar in her temple. 

Martis, Mars the god of war, and one of the guardian deities 
of Rome. 

4. annos, ace. of duration of time. 

7. fere throws back emphasis on haec, 'just this.' 

9. quonun = ut eoricm. ageret, subj., expressing purpose. 

12. urhl. Dat. after vicinas, an adj., expressing 'nearness.' 

13. raptarmn, undfrstand f«minarum. 

14. Caenlnenses. The people of Caenina, a Sabine town 
of Latium. 

Antemnates. The people of Antemnae, an ancient Sabine 

Cmstmninos. The people of Crustumium, a highland 
town of tlie Sabines. 

15. Sabinos. The Sabines, a powerful people of central 

Fidenates. The inhabitants of Fidenae, a Sabine town 
five miles N.E. of Rome. 

Veientes. The people of Veil, one of the most powerful 
cities of Etruria, about 12 miles from Rome. It was con- 
stantly at war with Rome until taken by the Dictator 

17. comparulsset. Translate as if it were pluperf. indie. 
Quum with the pluperf. subj. supplies the want of a past 
participle active in Latin. 


23. dvltatl, dative after profuit. Compounds of sum (except 
possum) take the dative. 

29. Albanos. Alba Longa was the most ancient town in 

32. mllliarlo, abl. of placei 

34. Caelio monte. Rome, originally built on Mons Pala- 
tinus, grew rapidly under the kings, until completed by 
Servius TuUius, who drew a line of fortifications round the 
city, which comprised all the seven hills of Rome — Palatinus, 
Caelius, Aventinus, Viminalis, Esquilinus, Quirinalis, Capi- 

38. Janiculum. Mons Janiculus, on the opposite side of 
the Tiber, was united to the city by the Pons Sublicius. 
Ancus fortified it against the Etruscans. 

39. Ostiam. Sixteen miles from Rome, the Tiber empties 
itself into the sea, and at this place Ancus built the town of 
Ostia, on the left bank of the river. It was the port of 
Rome until the time of the Emperor Trajan. 

morbo, abl. of cause. 

42. circum ludos Romanes. Tarquinius commemorated his 
victory over the Latins by celebrating games in the valley 
between the Palatine and Aventine hills. Before his death 
a permanent building was erected, afterwards called Circus 
Maximus. Here were held the ludi Romani or Cir censes, 
as they were variously called, comprising chariot races and 
other athletic contests. 

45. primusque, etc., 'and was the first to enter the city 
in triumph.' 

46. cloacas. The cloaca maxima of Tarquinius was a 
semicircular tunnel, 14 feet wide, beneath the city. 

Capitolium. The temple of Jupiter on Mons Capitolinus. 

47. regis ejus, gen. in apposition to And. 
52. Quirinalem, etc. See above, line 34. 

54. censum. The registering of Roman citizens by the 
censor, for the purposes of numbering, taxing, and assigning 
their position in the state. 

orbem t^rrarum = the world. 

NOTES. 63 

58. scelere, *by the wicked act.' 

62. Volscos. Ancient people of Latium; their principal 
town, Gabii. 

63, Suessam Pometiam, also called Pomfitla : a town of the 
Volsci, one of the 23 cities covered by the Pomptine Marshes. 

Tuscis. The Etruscans, near and powerful neighbours of 
Rome. Etruria proper was a confederacy of twelve cities. 
The Tarquins themselves were of Tuscan origin. They were 
hostile to Rome until finally subdued by Cornelius Dolabella 
B.C. 283. 

65, Ardeam. Ardea was the capital of the Rutuli in 
Latium, and originally the capital of the kingdom of Tumus. 

67. nobilissimi. CoUatinus was nephew of Tarquinius 

72. Tarquinio. Dat. with notion of disadvantage. 

79. placuit, 'it was determined.' Placet is the technical 
expression for decrees of the Senate. 

ne...liaberent, ' that they should not have ;' subj. expressing 

80. annum, ace. of duration of time. 

81 . insolentiores, ' too arrogant. ' 

98. Dictatura. An extraordinary Roman office. At critical 
times, when it became necessary to give a man absolute power, 
a Dictator was appointed, who was independent of the 
Senate, The Dictator chose another as his deputy, to 
represent him in his absence, who was called magister 
equitum, originally, as his name implies, commander of the 

103. Coriolos. The capital of the Volsci, It was taken in 
B,c. 493 by C. Marius, and gave him the surname of 

112. Fabia gente. A Roman family which produced several 
distinguished generals, notably Q, Fabius Cunctator, the 
leader of the Roman army against Hannibal in the Second 
Punic War. 

119. jugemm. A Roman measure of land, 240 feet in 
length and 120 in breadth. 


121. togam praetextam. The white gown with purple 
border, worn by magistrates and the youth of both sexes. 

124. qui...liaberent. A purpose is expressed, hence the 
subj . qui — ut ei. 

125. Decemviri. Ten commissioners, with supreme power, 
were appointed in B.C. 451 to draw up a code of laws. In 
B.C. 449 they were abolished owing to the tyranny of Appius 

134. Senones. A powerful tribe of N. Gaul. Some of 
them invaded Italy in B.C. 400, settled there, and harassed 
Rome, taking it in b. c. 390. They were subdued by Dolabella 
in B.C. 283. 

Alliam. The AUia falls into the Tiber six miles from 

140. ne...obsiderent, *on condition that they should not 

145. trans Anienem. Nom. case Anio. Anienem formed 
from old nom. Anien. A tributary of the Tiber. 

155. tributum militum. The six principal officers of the 
legion were called trihuni militum. 

164. Samnitas. Samnit-es, -um, or Samnlt-ae, -arum. The 
Samnites were an offshoot from the Sabines, occupying the 
hilly country between the Nar, Tiber, and Anio. Their 
bravery made them the most formidable enemies that Rome 
had to encounter in Italy. They invaded Campania, and it 
was in consequence of the people of Capua applying to Rome 
for help that war broke out between Rome and the Samnites 
mB.c. 343. 

171. capitis, of the head, i.e., to death. 

174. Furculas Caudinas. The Caudine Forks, a mountain 
pass near Caudium in Samnium. 

176. sub jugum miserunt = ' caused them to pass under the 
yoke' — a sign of defeat. The jugum was made by fastening 
a spear across two others stuck in the ground. 

181. Aquam Claudiam — viam Appiam. The Claudian aque- 
duct and the Appian road were made by Appius Claudius 
during his censorship in B.C. 312. 

186. Epiri rex. Epirus, a country in the N. W. of Greece. 

NOTES. 65 

189. jusslt eos. Take eos before dimitti as well as before 

191. agerentur. Subjunctive because it depends on re- 
nuntiarent, another verb in the subj. mood. 

193. quos incogTiitos. . .expaverunt = 'which the Romans were 
unacquainted with and afraid of.' 

197. adverse vianere= 'with wounds in front.' 

199. se potuisse, ace. with inf. after 'cum hac voce,' 
which is equivalent to dicens. 

200. contigissent = ' had fallen to his lot.' 

203. Praenesten. An ancient town of Latium, about 20 
miles S.E. of Rome on a steep hill. It was said to have been 
founded by Telt5g6nus, son of Ulysses. 

212. Romanorum, objective genitive, ' admiration for the 

223. spopondisset, subj. because in a dependent sentence 
in oratio obliqua, 

234. apud Argos (Arg-os, -i, and Arg-i, -omm). Pyrrhua 
was killed by a tile thrown by a woman from the housetops, 
while he was besieging Argos, one of the chief cities of South 
Greece, B.C. 272. 

238. Libumas. Light vessels built upon a model taken 
from the Libumians, a sea-faring people that lived on the 
east shore of the Adriatic. [Libumae, -arum, supply naves.) 

240. The victory of Duilius was due to a device by which 
he turned a naval into a land battle. His ships were 
furnished with grappling-irons, by means of which he seized 
the enemy's ships, and then boarded them. It was the tii-st 
naval victory the Romans had gained. 

248. Pngnatum est. Verbs intransitive in the active voice 
are used impersonally in the passive. Translate, ' a battle was 

251, Carthaginem. One of the first cities of the ancient 
world. It was situated on the north coast of Africa, and 
was said to have been founded by Phoenicians from Tyre 
under Dido. The Carthaginians became the rivals of the 
Romans, with them they were involved in three wars — kno\\Ti 
as the Punic wars. The first lasted from B.C. 265-242. The 


second from the siege of Saguntum, B.C. 218, to the battle 
of Zama, b.c. 202. The third took place in b.c. 146, when 
Carthage was taken and destroyed by Scipio Africanus the 
younger, and reduced to a Roman province. 

2;")7. nisi, etc., translate, 'except upon the hardest terms.' 
260. ita vlctus est, * was so severely defeated. ' 

267. Numidas, Numid-ae, -arum. The Numidians. A tribe 
of native Africans dwelling east of Carthage. 

274. desiisse, contracted perf. inf. from desino. 

284. Lilybseum. A fortress and harbour on the west of 
Sicily, founded by the Carthaginians. 

299. Saguntum. A town in south of Spain in alliance 
with the Romans. Its siege by Hannibal in b.c. 218 opened 
the Second Punic War. 

310. Pyrenaeum. The range of the Pyrenees, separating 
Gaul from Spain. Alpes, the Alps. Hannibal probably crossed 
by the Little S. Bernard, and entered Italy near the modern 
town of Aosta. 

315. Ariminum. A town in Umbria on the east coast 
of Italy. 

318. Trebiam. A stream in north Italy, flowing into the Po. 

319. Tusciam. The province of Etruria. This second 
battle was fought near Lake Trasimenus in Etruria in b.c. 217. 

332. Cannae. A village of Apulia, in S. Italy. 
338. Consulares, men who had held the office of consul, 
praetorii, officers attending upon a Roman general. 
340. ita ut...mitteret. Subj. expresses a consequence after 
ita= ' so that he sent.' 

358. sua aetate, 'in his own generation.' 

359. Carthaginem Novam. Nova Carthago, a Carthaginian 
colony in the S.E. coast of Spain, founded by Hasdrubal in 
B.C. 243, now called Cartagena. 

363. divinum quiddam= 'something of a god-like nature.' 
365. habere sermonem = ' to hold communion. ' 
378. vidissent, subj. because it depends on renuntiarent, 
a verb already in the subj. See line 191. 

NOTES. 67 

389. PWllppum. Philip, king of Macedon, a large tract of 
country in the north of Greece, began to reign B.C. 220, was 
defeated by Flamininus at Cynoscephalae B.C. 197, and died 
B.C. 179. 

394. Antiochum. Antiochus, sumamed the Great, the 
most illustrious of the family of the Seleucidae, kings of 
Syria. He conquered Caele-Syria, and Palestine, and being 
urged by Hannibal to make war upon the Pvomans, he in- 
vaded Greece, but was defeated in B.C. 191 at Thermopylae by 
them, and again in e.g. 190 by L. Scipio, at Mt. Sipylus in 
Magnesia, when he was compelled to sue for peace. 

414. Libyssam. A town o^ Kicomedia, a province of 
Bithynia in Asia Minor. 

424. consultissimus, 'a most experienced man.' 

432. quae sua recognoscebant, ' which they recognised as 
their own.' 

436. avus ejus = his grandfather Scipio, the conqueror of 
Hannibal in the Second Punic War. By birth the son of 
L. Aemilius Paullus, and not a Scipio at all, he was adopted 
by the son of the elder Africanus. 

455. rex Asiae. The kingdom of Attains only consisted of 
Lydia, Phrygia, Mysia, and Caria, four pro\"ince3 on the 
west coast of Asia ]\lLnor. 

469. quum...faceret, ' although he did,' etc. 

475. Bocchum. King of Mauritania, a country on the 
X.W. coast of Africa, between the Atlantic and Numidia. 
Bocchus was father-in-law of Jugurtha. 

478. quaestorem. The quaestor kept the funds of the 
army, gave the soldiers their pay, and superintended the 
distribution of spoils captured in war. 

487. Cimbri. A powerful tribe occupying what is now 
Denmark. In company with the Teutones and the Ambrones, 
neighbouring tribes, they emigrated southwards and invadetl 
Roman dominions. The Teutones were defeated by Marius 
at Aquae Sextiae (Aix) in B.C. 102, and the Cimbri next year 
at Campi Raudii, near Verona, in north Italy. The Tigurini, 
who also took part in the invasion, were a tribe of the 

518. beUi socialis. The Social War broke out in B.C. 90. 
Eight tribes of Italy, of which the Marsiaus were chief, joined 


themselves into a confederacy, nominally demanding the 
rights of Roman citizens, but really disputing the sovereignty 
of Rome over Italy. They were defeated by Pompeius 
Strabo and Sulla. 

515. Mithridatem. Mithridates was a powerful king of 
Pontus in Asia Minor. He extended his dominions, seizing 
upon the Roman provinces of Asia and Achaia, in Greece. 
He himself was defeated by Fimbria, and his general 
Archelaus by Sulla, and sued for peace, which was granted 
in B.C. 84. 

530. A senatu...pateretur - 'Answer was made to Mith- 
ridates by the Senate, that, if he did that, it would come to 
pass that he also would suffer war at the hands of the 
Romans.' Fore ov fnturum esse ut with subj. is another way 
of representing the fut, infinitive. 

532. Cappadociam. A district in eastern Asia Minor. 

534. PapMagoniam. A district in the north of Asia Minor. 

536. Ephesum. The chief city of Asia Minor, on the 
west coast. 

540. Achaia. A district in south Greece ; the name 
sometimes stands for the whole of south Greece. 

545. commisit. Understand praelium. 

549. agi jussit= 'ordered a truce to be made.' 

551. aliter= 'on other terms.' 

560. proscripserunt. Proscrihere = to outlaw. Names of 
persons whose property was to be confiscated were written up 
in a public place. 

567. Capua. The chief town of Campania. 

582. Marianae partis ducem. ' A general of the party of 

585. The antecedent of quod is the whole of the principal 
sentence, quartum et vicesimum annum agens, ' when in his 
twenty-fourth year.' 

595. Chalcedonem. A city of Bithynia on the Bosporus. 

597. Cyzicum. A Greek city of Asia Minor, situated on 
an island in the Propontis (Sea of Marmora). 
602. Byzantium. A town in Thrace on the Bosphorus, 

NOTES. 69 

founded by the Megarians in B.C. 658, and a place of great 
importance. A new city was built on its site in a.d. 330 
by Constantine, who made it the capital of the empire, and 
changed its name to Constantinopolis. 

632. IlljTicuin. A Roman province on the eastern shore 
of the Adriatic. 

633. Sequanl. A Celtic tribe of Gallia Belgica. 

641. stipendiarios. Conquered nations who paid a fixed 
monej'- tribute to the Romans were called stipendiarii ; those 
who paid at a certain rate on their produce were called 

642. annuum sestertium quadringenties. Translate 'a 
yearly tribute of forty million sesterces.' Annuum is a noun; 
sestertium is the gen. plu. of sestertius. When the distribu- 
tive numerals in -ies are used with sestertium, centena millia 
is understood : thus sestertium quadringenties = 100,000 
sestertii x 400. The sestertius was a small coin of the value 
of 2|d. before the time of Augustus, so that the total yearly 
tribute paid by the Gauls amounted to £334,166 13s. 4d. in 
English money. 

645. Arvemos. A powerful Gallic people in Aquitania, in 
the modem Auvergne. 

663. Hispanlas. Hispania (Spain), was divided into two 
provinces separated by the river Iberus, Hi.^pania Citerior 
and Hispania Ulterior. Hence the two together are some- 
times called Hispaniae. 

670. nee Pompeium scire vincere, ' that Pompey neither 
knew how to win a victory.' 

671. Tliessalia. A large part of north Greece. 
674. in unum convenerant, ' had come together. ' 

679. a rege Aeg3rpti. Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy Auletes, 
and brother of Cleopatra. 

685. generi sui. Pompey's third wife w^as Julia, the 
daughter of Julius Caesar. 

689. Alexandria potitus. Potior governs an abl. case. 

693. Ponto. A district in the N.E. of Asia Minor on the 
shores of the Pontus Euxinus, from which it takes its 


700. Mundam. A town in the south of Spain. 

703. natus annos sex etc., 'when 56 years of age. Annos^ 
ace. of duration of time. 

709. regia ac paene tyrannica, 'other things like a king 
and even almost like a tyrant.' 

714. duo Bruti. Decius Junius Brutus and Marcus Junius 

727. Caesaris nepos = Caesar's grand-nephew. Octavius 
was the son of Atia, the daughter of Julia, sister to Julius 
Caesar. Augustus was only a title given him by the Senate 
and people in B.C. 27 to express their veneration for hun. 
737. patris sui mortem, 'the death of his adopted father.' 
745. Macedoniam. Macedonia, a large district north of 

761. convenit, 'was agreed upon.' Convenio sometimes 
has a passive signification. 

765. duxit uxorem, married, cf. our phrase 'took to wife.' 
Ducere uxorem is used when speaking of the husband {i.e., to 
lead to his own house). The woman was said nubere (to veil) 
vii'o (for the man) . 

768. pro victo, 'as one beaten.' 

771. in urbe, that is, at Rome. 

773. Actium. A town in the extreme south of Epirus, on 
the west coast of Greece. 

779. Hunc primum etc. Translate ' This man was the 
first Roman ruler that Egypt had.' 

787. morte communi, 'an ordinary death.' 

788. in campo Martio (the plain of Mars). The Campus 
Martins was a plain outside the walls of Rome. It was the 
place where the Romans held their athletic contests, and 
where some of the elections for public oflScers took place. 


abl., ablative. 
ace, accusative. 
adj., adjective. 
adv., adverb. 
com., common. 
comp., comparative. 
conj., conjunction. 
dat., dative. 
defect., defective. 
demons,, demonstrative. 
disfrib., distributive. 
/*., feminine. 
frequent. , frequentative. 
gen., genitive. 
gov., governing. 
imper., imperative. 
impers., impersonal. 
incept., inceptive. 
indecl., indeclinable. 
indef., indefinite. 
injin., infinitive. 
irreg,, irregular. 

lit., literally. 
m., masculine. 
n., neuter. 
nam., nominative 
num., numeral. 
part., participle. 
pass., passive. 
per/ ^ perfect. 
pi., plural. 
poss., possessive. 
prep., preposition. 
pres., present. 
pron., pronoun. 
reflex., reflexive. 
rel., relative. 
sing., singular. 
subst., substantive. 
superl. , superlative. 
v.a., verb active. 
V. dep., verb deponent 
v.n., verb neuter. 
voc, vocative. 


The parts of regular Verbs are not given. 

A dot occurring in a word separates the parts of a compound. 

Eutropi-us, -i, m., Eutropius. 
histori-a, -ae,/., a history. 
R6man-us, -a, -um, adj., Ro- 


Imper-ium, -ii, ?i., empire, 

a or a'o, prcjj. (jov. abl. , by, from. 
R6miil-us, -i, m., Romulus, 
exord-ium, -ii, n. , a becrinning. 
hab-eo, v. a., 2, I have, 1 con- 
sider, I hold, I keep. 
qui, quae, quod, rel. pron., who, 

Vestal-is, -e, adj., belonging to 

Vesta, Vestal. 
virg-o, -inis, /., a virgin, a 

fili-us, -i, m., a son. 
et, C071J., and, also; et, both 

Mars, Mart-is, m., Mars, 
cum, prep. gov. abl., with. 
Rem-us, -i, m., Remus, 
frat-er, -ris, m., a brother, 
un-us, -a, -um, adj., one. 
part-us, -us, m., a birth. 
e*d-o, -ere, -idi, -itum, v.a. 3, 

I bring forth. 

Is, ea, id, pron., he, she, it, 

octodecim, adj. indecL, eigh- 

ann-us, -i, m., a year. 

nasc-or, -i, nat-us sum, v. dep. 
3, I am born. 

urb-s, -is,/., a city. 

exigu-us, -a, -um, adj., small. 

in, prep, tvith abl. , in, on ; tvith 
ace, into, for. 

Palatin-us, -i, m., the Pala- 

mon-s, -Ms, m., a mountain, 

con*stitu-o, -ere, •stitii-i, 'stl- 
tut-um, v.a. 3, I build, estab- 
lish (sto, I stand; statuo, I 
cause to stand). 

post, prep. gov. ace, behind, 

Troj-a, -ae,/., Troy. 

excid-ium, -ii, n., destruction. 

trecent-esimus, -eslma, esimum, 
7ium. adj., the three hun- 

nonag-eslmus, -esima, -esimum, 
num. adj., ninetieth. 

quart-US, -a, -um, ninii. adj.^ 




con*d-o, -ere, -idi, -itum, v.a. 3, 

I build, I found, 
civit-as, -atis,/., a state, 
e or ex, prep. gov. ahL, out of, 

from, according to. 
nom-en, -inis, n., a name, 
su-us, -a, -um, poss. pron., his 

own, her own, its own. 
Rom-a, -ae, /.. Rome, 
voc-o, v.a. 1, I call, I name, 
hie, haec, hoc, demons, pron., 

fere, adv.^ almost, generally, 

about, nearly, 
ag-o, ere, eg-i, act-um, v.a. 3, 

I do, I treat, I celebrate, 
multitud-o, -inis, /., a large 

fin-itimus, -itima, -itimum, 

adj., bordering on; subst., a 

re'cip-io, ere, recep-i, recept- 

um, v.a. 3, I take again, I 

receive (re, capio). 
centum, num. adj. indecl., a 

sen-ior, -ioris, comp. adj., 

older; subst. pi., the elders, 
elig'-o, -6re, 'leg-i, lect-um, 

v.a. 3, I pick out, I choose 

(e, l6go). 
consilium, -ii, n., advice, plan, 

counsel, skill. 
omn-is, -e, adj. , every ; pi. all. 
Senat-or, -oris, m., a Senator, 

member of the Senate. 
nomin-o, v.a. 1, I give a name 

to, I call (nomen, a name). 
propter, prep. gov. ace, on 

account of. 

I senect-us, -utis, /., old age. 
[ tunc, adv., then, at that time, 
quum, conj., when, since, al- 
i though. 

! ips-e, -a, -nm, pron., the (man) 
I himself. 

: popiil-us, -i, m., a people, 
ux-or, -oris,/., a wife, 
non, adv., not. 
invit-o, v.a. 1, I invite. 
I ad, po'ej). gov. ace, to. 
spectaciil-um, -i, n., a show, a 
! lud-us, -i, m., a game, a 

I vicin-us, -a, -um, adj., neigh- 
na-tio, -tionis, /., a nation, a 
tribe (nascor, I am bom). 
I atque, co72J., and. 
rap-io, -6re, -ui, -tum, v.a. 3, 
I seize, I bear off. 


! com"m5v-eo, -ere, -mov-i, -mot- 
j um, v.a. 2, I stir up, I ex- 
bell-um, -i, n., war. 
I injuri-a, -ae, /., a wrong, an in- 
Caenin-enses, -ensium, m. pi., 
the people of Caenlna, the 
vinc-o, -ere, vic-i, vlct-um, v.a. 
3, I conquer, I beat, I defeat. 
Antemn-ates, -atum, m. pi. , the 
people of Antemnae, the An- 
Crustum-Ini, -Inorum, m. pi., 
the people of Crustumium, 
the Crustumini. 



Sab-Ini, -Inorum, m. pL, the. 

Flden-ates, -atium, m. pi., the 

people of Fidenae; the Fiden- 

Veient-es, -lum, m. pL, the 

people of Veil; the Veien- 


oppid-um, -i, n., a town, 
cing-o, -ere, cinx-i, cinct-um, 

v.a. 3, I surround, 
or-ior, -iri, ort-us sum, v. dep. 

4, I arise, 
subito, adv.f suddenly, unex- 
tempes-tas, -tatis, /., a storm, 
com'par-eo, -ere, -ui, v.n. 2, I 

am visible, I appear, 
reg-num, -ni, U;, a kingdom, a 

tric-eslmus, -esima, -esimum, 

mim. adj., thirtieth, 
sept-imus, -ima, -imum, num. 

adj., seventh, 
de-us, -i, m., a god {voc, deus, 

/>/., dei or dii). 
trans '60, -ire, "iv-i or -i-i, it- 

um, v.a. irreg., I go across, 
cred-o, -6re, -idi, -itum, v.a. 

and n. 3, I believe, I trust. 
con*secr-o, v.a. 1, I consecrate, 

deify (cum, sacro). 
deinde, adv., afterwards, there- 
per, prep. gov. ace, through, 
qui-ni, -nae, -na, distrib. num. 

adj., five each, 
di-es, -ei, m. and/., a day. 
imper-o, v.a. 1, I command, I 

regn-o, v.a. 1, I reign. 
com-pleo, -plere, -plev-i, -plet- 

um, v.a. 2, I fill up, I com- 

"^^•^' " TV. 

] postea, adv., afterwards (post, 
[ earn). 

I Num-a, -ae, m., Numa. 
! Pompil-ius, -ii, m., Pompilius. 
I rex, reg-is, m., a king. 
; cre-o, v.a. 1, 1 make. 
I n"ull-us, null-a, null-um {gen., 
I nulllus, dat., nuUi), adj., no, 
I not any, subst., no one {ne, 
\ ullus). 

I quidem, adv., indeed. 
! ger-o, -6re, gess-i, gest-um, 
! v.a. 3, I carry on, I wage, 
sed, conj., but. 
minus, comp. adv., less. 
quam, adv. , how, than. 
pro -sum, prod esse, profu-i, 
V. irreg., I am of use to, I 
benefit {icith dat. ). 
nam, conj., for. 
lex, leg-is,/., a law. 
mos, mor-is, rn., custom; pi., 

con'sue-tudo, -tudinis, /., a cus- 
que, conj., and. 
proel-ium, -li, n. , a battle, 
jam, adv., now. 
latr-o, -onis, m., a robber, a 

ac, C071J., and. 
semi'barbar-us, -a, -um, adj., 

half barbarian, 
put-o, v.a. 1, I think, I deem, 
de'scrib-o, -ere, -scrips-i, 
script-um, v.a. 3, I write 
down, I divide, 
decern, indecl. num. adj., ten. 



mens -is, -is, m., a month {from 
met-ior, mens-us sum, I mea- 

in-finl-tus, -ta, -tum, adj., un- 
limited, innumerable. 

sacr-um, -i, n. , a religious cere- 
mony, sac-er, -ra, -rum, 
adj., sacred. 

templ-um, -i, n., a temple. 

morb-us, -i, m., a disease. 

dexed-o, -6re, xess-i, 'cess-um, 
v.n. 3, I go down, I depart, 
I die (cedo, I go). 

quadrag-esimus, -esima, -esi- 
mum, num. adj., fortieth, 

ter-tius, -tia, -tium, num. adj., 


8uc-ced-o, -ere, 'cess-i, 'cess- 
um, v.a., 3, I go after, I fol- 
low (sub, cedo). 

Tull-us, -i, m., Tullus. 

Hostil-ius, -ii, m., Hostilius. 

Alb-ani, -anorum, m. ,the people 
of Alba, the Albans. 

diiodecim-us, -a, -um, num. 
adj., twelfth. 

millia-rium, -rii, n., a mile- 

ab'sxim, abesse, abfu-i, v.n. 
irreg., I am distant, absent. 

al-Ius, -ia, -iud {gen., al-ius; 
dat.,al-li), adj. pron., another 
(alii... alii, some... others). 

ses-tus, -ta, -tum, num. adj., 

oct-avus, -ava, -avum, num. 
adj., eighth. 

decim-us, -a, -um, num. adj., 

8uper-o, v.a. 1, I am over, I 
conquer, I overcome. 

ampli-o, v.a. 1, I enlarge. 
ad"jic-io, -ere, *jec-i, "ject- 

um, v.a. 3, I add to (ad, 

Caeli-us, -a, -um, adj., Cael- 

mon-s, -tis, m., a mountain, a 

triginta, indecl. num. adj., 

du-o, -ae, -o, num. adj., two. 
ful-men, -minis, n., lightning, 

a thunderbolt. 
ic-o, -ere, -i, -tum, v.a. 3, I 

dom-us, -us, /. , a house. 
ard-eo, -ere, ars-i, ars-um, v.n. 

2, I am on fire, I bum. 


Anc-us, -i, m., Ancus. 

Marc-ius, -ii, m., Marcius. 

nep-os, -otis, m., a grandson, a 
descendant, nephew. 

sus-cip-io, -ere, 'cep-i, 'cept- 
um, v.a. 3, I take up, I re- 
ceive (sub, capio), I undertake 

contra, prep. gov. ace, against. 

Latin-i, -orum, m,, the people 
of Latium, the Latins. 

dimic-o, v.n. 1, I fight. 

Aventin-us, -a, -um, adj., Aven- 

Jan-iculum, -iculi, n., Janicu- 

Osti-a, ae, /. , Ostia. 

vic-esimus, -esima, -esimum, 
num. adj., twentieth. 

per -60, 'ire, "iv-i o?* "i-i, -it-um, 
v.a. irreg., I go through, I 




Tarquin-Ius, -li, m., Tarquin 

Prisc-us, -i, m., Priscus 
accip-io, -ere, -cep-i, cept-um 

v.a. 3, I receive, I suffer. ' 
num-grus, -6ri, m., a number, 
du'plic-o, v.a. 1, 1 double (duo, 

plico, I fold). j 

circ-us, -i, m., a circus. ! 

aedi-flc-o. v.a. 1, 1 build (aedes, 

a house, facio). I 

in stitu-o, ere, -stitu-i, •stitut- [ 

um, v.a. .3, I establish, I j 

found (see constituo, oh. ii.). 
nos-ter, -tra, -trum, adj. pron., \ 

our, belonging to us. 
memor-ia, -ise, /., recollection. 

per man-eo, -ere, -mans-i, 

•mans-um, v.n. 2, I remain, 

I continue, 
i-dem, ea-dem, i-dem {gen. 

ejus-dem, dat. ei-dem), adj. 

pron., the same. i 

etiam, adv., even, also. ! 

pri-mus, -ma, -mum, superl. \ 

adj., first. I 

triumpli-o, v.n. 1, I celebrate a | 

intr-o, v.n. 1, I enter, 
mu-rus, -ri, m., a wall, 
fac-io, -ere, fec-i, fact-um, v.a. 

3, I make, I do. 
cloaca, -ae, /., a drain, a 

Capitol-lum, -li, n., the Capi- 
incho-o, v.a. 1, I begin. 
oc'cid-o, -ere, -i, "cis-um, v.a. 3, 

I kill (ob, caedo), I slay. 


Serv-ius, -ii, m., Servius. 

Tull-ius, -ii, m., Tullius. 

gign-o, -ere, genu-i, genit-um, 
v.a. 3, I bring forth (genitus, 

no-bilis, -bile, adj., noble. 

fe-mina, -minse, /., a woman. 

cap-tlvus, -tlva, -tlvum, adj., 
captive (capio). 

tamen, conj., nevertheless, 
yet, however. 

ancill-a, -ae, /., a slave, a hand- 

quoque, conj., also. 

sublg-o, -ere, "eg-i, -act-um, 
v.a. 3, I conquer, I subdue 
(sub, ago). 

tres, tria, num. adj., three. 

Quirin-alis, -die, adj., belonging 
to Quirinus, Quirinal. 

Vimin-alis, -ale, adj., Viminal. 

Esquil-Inus, -ina, -inum, ailj., 
belonging to the Esquiliae, 

ad-jung-o, -ere, -junx-i, -junct- 
um, v.a. 3, I join to. 

foss-a, -se, /., a ditch, an en- 
trenchment (fod-io, foss-um, 
I dig). 

circum, prep. gov. ace, arovmd. 

duc-o, -ere, dux-i, duct-um, 
v.a. 3, I draw, I marry. 

cens-us, -as, m., a census, a 

ordin-o, v.a. 1, I arrange, I ap- 
point (ord-o, -inis, a straight 

adliuc, adv., hitherto. 

orb-is, -is, m. , a circle. 

terr-a, -ae,/., the earth, land 



In'cognit-us, -a, -um, adj.^ un- 
known (cognosce, I become 
acquainted with). 

sum, esse, fu-i, v.n. irreg., I 


sub, prep. gov. ahl., under, 
de'fer-o, -re, -tul-i, -lat-um, 

v.a. irreg., I bring or carry 

down, I confer., I enter on. 
octoglnta, indecl. num. adj., 

quattuor, indecl. num. adj., 

milli-a, -wxD^, thousand, 
civ-is, -is, com., a citizen, 
ag-er, ri, m., a field, pi., the 

quln-tus, -ta, -turn, num. adj., 

Bcel-us, -6ris, n., a wicked act, 

a crime, 
gen-er, -6ri, m., a son-in-law. 
Superb-us, -i, m., Superbus. 
fili-a, -ae, /,, a daughter (dat. 

and abl. pi. fili-abus. 


Luc-ius, -ii, m. Lucius. 

ultim-us, -a, -um, adj. supl., 
last, farthest. 

Volsc-i, -orum, m., the Vol- 

Gab-ii, -iorum, m., Gabii. 

Suess-a Pometi-a, ge^i. Suess-ae, 
Pometi-ae, /., Suessa Pome- 

Tusc-i, -orum, m., the Etru- 

pax, pac-is,/., peace. 

Ju-^iter, gen. Jov-is,m. , Jupiter. 
Arde-a, -ae,/., Ardea. 
op-pugn-o,v.a. 1,1 fight against, 

I besiege. 
pon-O; -ere, pos-ui, pos-itum, 

v.a. 3, I place., I situate^ 
perd-o, -ere, -idi, -Itum, v.a. 3, 

I lose, 
juven-is, -is, adj., young, jun- 
ior, -loris, camp., younger, 
nobil-issimus, -issima, -issimum, 

superl. adj. {see noliilis). 
Collatin-us, -i, m. Collatinus. 
af'fic-io, -ere, -fec-i, fect-um, 

v.a. 3, I do (something) to. 

Injuria aflScio, I injure (ad 

facio)., I wrong. 
de, prep. gov. ahl., of, concern- 
ing, respecting, 
marit-us, -i, m., a husband, 
pat-er, -ris, m., a father, 
amic-us, -i, m., a friend, 
quer-or, -i, quest-us, -sum, v. 

dep. 3, I complain, 
conspect-us, -us, m., a sight, a 

view (conspicio). 
sul, pron. reflex., sing, and pi. 

of himself, of herself, of itself, 

of themselves. 


caus-a, -ae,/. , a cause, a reason. 
I Brut-US, -i, m., Brutus. 
I paren-s, -tis, ccmi., a parent, 
I a kinsman. 
j con*ci-to, v.a. 1,1 stir up, I excite. 

ad-im-o, -ere, -em-i, -empt-um, 
I v.a. 3, I take away. 
j mox, adv., soon, afterwards. 
i exercit-us, -us, m., an army. 
i re-linqu-o, -ere, -liqu-i, -llct- 



um, v.a. 3, I leave, I leave 

ven-io, -ire, ven-i, vent-um, 

v.a. 4, I come, 
port-a, -ae,/., agate, 
claud-o, -ere, claus-i, claus-um, 

v.a. 3, I shut. 
ex"clud-o, -ere, 'clus-i, clus- 

mn, v.a. 3, I shut out. 
vlglnti, indecl. num. adj., 

quinque, indecl. num. adj., five, 
liber-i, -orum, m., children, 
fug-io, -ere, fug-i, fug-itum, 

v.n. 3, I flee away, I escape. 

I fly. 


Mnc, adv., hereupon, then, 
cons-ul, -ulis, m., a consul, 
coep-i, -isse, -turn, defect, verb, 

I begin, 
pro, prep. gov. abl., instead of, 

Ut, conj. , that as, in order that. 
Bi, conj., if. 
mal-us, -a, -um, adj., bad, 

v6l-o, vel-le, volu-i, v. irreg., 

I am willing, I wish, 
alter, alter-a, alter-um, adj., 

the other (of two), one of 

co"erc-eo, v.a. 2, I correct, I 

restrain (cum, arceo). 
plac-eo, V.71. 2, 1 please; plac-et, 

-uit, v. impers., it is resolved, 
ne, conj., lest, that not, v^ith 

imper. mood, not. 
longius, comp. adv., longer 

{camp, o/longe), more, 
diuturn-itas, -itatis, /., length 

of time (diu, adv., for a long 

potes-tas, -tatis, /., power 

in'solen-s, -tis, adj., unaccus- 
tomed, insolent, arrogant 
(soleo, I am accustomed). 

red'd-o, -ere, -idi, -Itum, v.a. 3, 
I render, I make. 

igitur, adv., therefore, conse- 

ex*pell-o, -ere, 'piil-i, "piils-um, 
v.a. 3, I drive out, I ex- 
pel, I banish. 

Jun-ius, -ii, m., Junius. 

Lucreti-a, -ae, /., Lucretia. 


statim, adv., immediately, 
sub'lat-us est, from toll-o, -ere, 

sus*tul-i, sub'lat-um, v.a. 3, 

I take away, 
dign-itas, -itatis, /., dignity, 

honour (dign-us, worthy), 
enim, co7ij., for. 
quis-quam, quae-quam, quic- 

quam, or quid-quam, pron. 

indef., any (person or thing). 
man-eo, -ere, -si, -sum, v.n. 2, 

I stay, I remain, 
ergo, adv., therefore, conse- 
migr-o, v.n. 1, I remove, 
loc-us, -i, m. (pl.loc-iandloc-a,), 

a place, position. 
Valer-ius, -ii, m., Valerius. 
Pnblicol-a, -ae, m., Publicola. 
coMig-o, -ere, leg-i, -lect-um 

v.a. 3, I collect, I gather 

together (cum, lego). 
undique, adv., from all sides. 



mul-tus, -ta, -turn, adj. , much, 
great; pZ., many. 

gen-s, -tis,/., a family, a tribe. 

pos'sum, po'sse, pot ui, v.irreg., 
I am able (potis^ able, and 

re-stitu-o, -ere, 'stitu-i, stitut- 
um, v.a. 3, I replace, I re- 
store (re, statuo). 


pugn-a, -ae, /., a fight, a 

Arun-s, -tis, m., Aruns, 
invicem, adv., in turn, mutu- 
vict-or, oris, m., a conqueror 

(vinco, I conquer), 
re'ced-o, -ere, •cess-i, -cess-um, 

v.n. 3, I go back, I with- 
matron-a, ae, /., a wife, a 

defens-or, -oris, m., a defender 

(def endure), 
pudic-itia, -itiae, /., modesty, 

quasi, adv., as, as if. 
com'mun-is, -e, adj., common, 

i.e., belonging equally to 

Itig-eo, -ere,lux-i, luct-um, v.a. 

2, I mourn for. 
no-nus, -na, -num, num. adj., 

ex-ig-o, -ere, 'eg-i, 'act-um, 

v.a. 3, I drive out. 
scc-er, -6ri, m., a father-in-law. 
vlndic-o, v.a. 1, I avenge 
ingen-s, -tis, adj., great, 
nov-us, -a, -um, adj., new. 

dicta-tura, -turae, /. , the dicta* 

ap"peU-o, v.a. 1, I call, I name 

(ad, pello). 
mag-ister, -istri, m. , a master, 
equ-es, -itis, com., a horse sol- 
dier, a knight; pi., cavalry 

(equus, a horse), 
dicta-tor, -toris, m., a dictator 

(dicto, I say frequently). 
ob'sequ-or, -i, -sequut-us {or 

■secut-us), sum, v. dep. 3, I 

attend upon. 


postquam, coiy. , after that. 

e-jic-io, -ere, jec-i, •jeet-um, 
v.a. 3, I cast forth (e, jctcio). 

Quint-ius, -ii, m., Quintius. 

dux, due-is, 7/1., a leader, a 

Coriol-i, -orum, m. , Corioli. 

cap-io, -ere, cep-i, capt um, v.a. 
o, I take, I capture. 

con*tend-o, -ere, -i, "tent-um, 
v.n. 3, 1 go eagerly, I hasten. 

irasc-or, -i, irat-us sum, v. dep. 
3, I am angry. 

auxil-ium, -ii, n., help, assist- 
ance ; pi. , auxiliary troops. 
! saepe, adv. , often. 
I usque, ac??;., all the way, asfaras. 
' ac-ced-o, -ere, xess-i, 'cess-um, 
v.n. 3, I approach, I am 
added (ad, cedo), I come up. 

patri-a, -ae, /., a fatherland. 

legat-us, -i, 7n., a messenger, 
a lieutenant, a legate. 

pet o, -ere, -ivi or -ii, itum, v.a. 
3, I seek, I ask, I sue for. 

repudi-o, v.a. 1, I reject, I re- 



nisi, conj., unless, except. 

ma-ter, -tris, /., a mother. 

Veturi-a, -ae, /. , Yeturia. 

Volumnl-a, ae,/., Volumnia. 

flet-us, -us, 771., a weeping 
(fleo, I weep). 

depreca-tio, -tionis, /., a beg- 
ging off, an earnest en- 
treaty, a prayer. 

re"mov-eo, -ere, -mov-i, -mot- 
um, v.a. 2, I remove. 


Kaes-o, -onis, m., Kaeso. 
Fab-ius, -ii, m., Fabius. 
Tit-us, -i, m., Titus, 
Virgin-ius, -ii, m., Virginius. 
trecent-i, -ae, -a, num. adj., 

three hundred, 
hom-o, -inis, com., a man (a 

human being). 
Fab-ius, -ia, -ium, adj., Fabian. 
sol-US, -a, -um., adj., alone 

{gen., sol-lus). 
itaque, conj., and so. 
pro'ficisc-or, -i, "fect-us sum, 

V. dtp. 3, I set out. 
con-cid-o, -ere, -i, v.n. 3, I fall 

(cum, cado). 
omnino, adv., altogether, en- 
super -sum, -esse, -fu-i, v. irreg., 

I am left, I survive, 
tan-tus, -ta, -tum, adj. , so great, 

so large, 
famil-ia, -iae, /., a household, 

a family, 
ae-tas, -tatis, /., age. 
puer-ilis, -lie, adj., boyish, 

youthful (puer). 


I sequ-or, -i, -utus {or sec-utus) 
i sum, V. dep. 3, I follow. 
Algid-US, -i, n., Algidus. 
ob-sid-eo, -ere, 'sed-i, sess-um, 

v.n. 2, 1 blockade (ob, aedeuj. 
L = Lucius. 
Cinclnnat-us, -i, m., Cincinna- 

juger-um, -i, n., a juger, an 

possid-eo, -ere. 'sed-i, sess- 
um, v.a. 2, I possess, 
ma-nus, -nus, /., a hand, a 

col-o, -ere, ui, cult-um, v.a. 3, 

I cultivate, I inhabit, 
ar-o, v.a. 1, I plough. 
in*ven-io, -ire, "ven-i, vent- 

um, v.a. 4, I come upon, I 

sud-or, -oris, m., sweat, 
deterg-eo, -ere, 'ters-i, -ters- 

um, v.a. 2, I wipe off. 
tog-a, -ae, /., a toga, 
prae'tex-tus, -ta, -tum, adj., 

praetexta, edged, 
caed-o, -ere, cecid-i, caes-um, 

v.a. 3 (I cause to fall), I 

hos-tis, -tis, m., a stranger, an 

enemy (public), in'imic-us, 

-i, m., an enemy (private), 

(in, amicus), 
liber-o, v.a. 1, I set free, 
consul-aris, -are, adj., belong- 
ing to a consul, consular ; 

subst., an ex -consul, 
cess-o, v.Ji. 1, I cease, 
summ-us, -a, -um, siiperl. adj., 

highest, chief. 



decem'vlr-i, -orum, m. pi., De- 


1, I renew war, 

re"bell-o, v. 

I revolt, 
mitt-o, -ere, mis 

v.a. 3, I send. 
CamUl-us, -i, m., Camillus. 
primum, adv., at first. 
ac-ies, -iei, /., a battle, an 

army (drawn up). 
diu, adv., for a long time, 
antiqu-issimus, -issima, -issi- 

mum, superl. adj., most 

Itali-a, -ae,/., Italy, 
dlt-issimus, -issima, -issimum, 

superl. adj., richest (dives, 

Falisc-i, -orum, m., Falisci. 
invid-ia, -iae, /., envy, jeal- 
quod, co7tj., because, 
praed-a, -ae, /., booty, spoil, 
male, adv., badly, unjustly. 
di'vid-o, -ere, 'vis-i, 'vis-um, 

v.a. 3, I divide. 
damn-o, v.a. 1, I condemn. 
Ob, prep. gov. ace, on account 



Gall-US, -i, m. , a Gaul. 
Senon-es, -um, m. pi., 

apud, prep. gov. ace, near 

flum-en, -inis, n., a. river. 
Alll-a, -ae, /. , Allia. 
occiip-o, v.a. 1, I seize. 


neque {or nee), conj., nor (nee 

. . . nee, neither ... nor ). 
defend-o, -ere, -fend-i, -fens- 

um, v.a. 3, I defend, 
fam-es, -is, /., hunger, famine, 
labor-o, v.n. 1, 1 am distressed, 

I suffer, 
exsul-o, v.w. 1, I am an exile, 
secut-us, per/, part, of sequor 

(ch. xvii. ). 
aur-um, -i, n., gold, 
ita, adv. , so, in this way. 
d-o, -are, ded-i, datum, v.a. 1, 

I offer, I give, I grant, 
mllit-aris, -are, ad/. , belonging 

to a soldier, military (miles, 

a soldier), 
sign-um, -i, n., a standard. 
re-v6c-o, v.a. 1, I recall, I re- 


adversus, p7'ep. gov. ace, 

trans, ])rep. gov. ace, beyond, 

across, on the other side, over. 
Ani-o, -enis, m., the Anio. 
fiuv-ius, ii, m., a river (duo, I 

consid-o, -ere, 'sed-i, "sess-um, 

v.a. 3, I encamp, I settle on. 
Manl-ius, -ii, m., Manlius, 
sing-ul-aris, -are, adj., single, 
eertam-en, -mis, n., a combat. 
pro'Voc-O; v.a. 1, I challenge, 
torqu-is {or -es), -is, m. and f., 

a collar, 
aur-eus, -ea, -eum, adj., golden 

(aurum, gold). 
coll um, -i, n., the neck, 
re-s, -i, /., a thing, a circum- 
stance, property, an affair. 



im'pon-o, -ere, "posu-i, -posit- 
um, V. a. 3, 1 put on, I xjlace on. 

perpetu-us, -a, -um, adj., per- 

Torquat-us, -i, m., Torquatus. 

post-6nis, -6ra, -6rum, adj., 
next; pi. subst., post-eri, 
-eronim, m., posterity. 

cognom-en, -inis, n., a surname 
(con, nomen). 

fug-o, v.a. 1, I put to flight, I 

C=Cai-us, -i, ?n.,Caius. 

Sulpic-ius, -ii, m., Sulpicius. 


leg-io, -ionis, /., a legion. 

Fur-ius, -ii, m., Furius. 

qui'dam, quae'dam, quod'dam, 
i7idpf. pron., a certain one. 

optim-us, -a, -um, superl. adj., 
the best. 

tum, adv., then, 

Marc-US, -i, m., Marcus. 

trib-unus, -tini, vi., a tribune. 

mil-es, -itis, m., a soldier, sol- 

of'fer-o, -re, obtul-i, ob*lat-um, 
v.a. irreg., I oflfer (ob, fero). 

pro'ced-o, -ere, -cess-i, 'cess- 
um, v.n. 3, I go forward. 

ann-o, v.a. I, I arm. 

corv-us, -i, m., a raven. 

gale-a, -ae, /. , a helmet. 

icom'mitt-o, -ere, "mis-i, 'miss- 
um, v.a. 3, I set on (to com- 
bat), I entrust, I commence. 

al-a, -ae, /., a wing. 

ungu-is, -is, m., a nail, a claw. 

ociil-us, -i, m., an eye. 

verber-o, v.a. 1, 1 beat, I strike. 

Inter-fic-io, -ere, -feci, -fect- 
um, v.a. 3, I kill (fScio). 

vlctor-ia, -iae, /., victory 

Corvin-us, -i, m., Corvinus. 

dic-o, -ere, dix-i, dict-um, v.a 
3, I say, I call. 

merit-um, -i, n., a service. 


jam, adv., now, already. 

pot-ens, -entis, adj., powerful 
[pres. part, o/ possum). 

Samn-ltes, Itium, m. pi, Sam- 

med-ius, -ia, -ium, adj., mid- 

inter, prep. gov. ace, among, 

Pic-enum, -eni, n., Picenum. 

Campania, -aniae, /., Cam- 

Apiill-a, -ae,/., Apulia. 

Papir-ius, -ii, m., Papirius. 

Curs-or, -oris, m., Cursor. 

hon-or, -oris, m., honour, dig- 

red'eo, -ire, 'iv-i or i-i, -it-um, 
v.n. irreg., I go back, I re- 


MaxJm-us, -i, m., Maximus. 

prae*cip-io, -ere, •cep-i, -cept- 
um, v.n. 3, I order. 

abs-ens, -entis, adj., absent. 

pugn-o, v.a. 1, I fight. 

occa-sio, -sionis,/., opportunity 
(ob, cado). 

re-pgr-io, -ire, repper-i, -tum, 
I v.a. 4, I tiud. 
I felic-issime, ac?r. {superl. o/feli- 



citer), most successfully (fe- 

de-leo, "lere, "lev-i, -let-urn, 
v.a. 2, I destroy, I annihi- 

cap-ut, -itis, n.y ahead, life. 

V8t-o, -are, -iii, itum, v.a. 1, I 

fav-or, -oris, m., a favouring, 


furc-tila, -ttlae, /., a little fork 

(furca, a fork). 
Caud-inus, -ma, -inum, adj., 
belonging to Caudium, Cau- 
angust-ia, -iae, /., narrowness; 

111. , a narrow deiile, a pass. 
con'clud-Oj -ere, "clus-i, "clus- 
uni, v.a. 3, I shut up (cum, 
dedec-us, -6ris, n., disgrace, 
jug-um, -i, n., a yoke, 
sen-atus, -atus, m., the Senate, 
solv-o, -ere, -i, solut-um, v.a. 3, 
I unloose, I break (se, apart, 
luo, I loosen), 
necess-itas, -itatis, /., neces- 
,6-0, -6ri, fact-US sum, i^ass. of 

faci-o (ch. vii.). 
sept 'em, num. adj. inded., 

tem-pus, -p5ris, n., time. 
App-ius, -ii, m., Appius. 
Claud-ius, -ii, m., Claudius. 
cens-or, -oris, w,, a censor, 
aqu-a, ae, /., water, an aque- 
Claud-ius, -ia, -ium, adj. of or 

belonging to Claudius, Clau- 

in'duc-o, -ere, -dux-i, 'duct-um, 

v.a. 3, I bring in. 
vi-a, -ae, /., a way, a road. 
App-ius, -ia, -ium, adj. of or 

belonging to Appius, Appian. 
stern-o, -ere, strav-i, strat-um, 

v.a. 3, I spread out, I level, 

I construct. 


inter'jlc-io, -ere, "Jec-i, -Ject- 

um, v.a. 3, I throw between 

ali'quot, num.adj. inded., some, 

Tarent-ini, -inorum, m.pL, the 

in'dic-o, ere, "dix-i, 'dict-um, 

v.a. 3, I declare, 
fer-o, -re, tul-i, lat-um, v.a. 

irreg., I carry, I bring, I 

Pyrrh-us, -i, m., Pyrrhus. 
Epir-us, -i,/., Epirus, 
trans "mar-Inus, -In a, -Inum,i 

adj., beyond sea (mare, the 

Publ-ius, -ii, m., Publius. 
Laevin-us, -i, m., Laevinus. 
explora-tor, -toris, m., a scout, 
jub-eo, -ere, juss-i, juss-um,> 

v.a. 2, I order, 
cas-trum, -tri, n., a fort; pl.f 

a camp, 
os'tend-o, -ere, -i, "tens-um, 

v.a. 3, I show. 
di"mitt-o, -ere, -mis-i, -misa- 

um, v.a. 3, I send away {lit.f 

in different directions). 



re"nuntl-o, v. a. 1, I announce, 

quicunque, quaecunque, quod- 

cunque, rd. pron., whoever, 




elephant-us, -i, m., 

expavesc-o, -ere, "pav-i, v. a. 3, 
incept., I dread [lit., I begin 
to dread). 

nox, noct-is, /., night, dark- 

fi-nis, -nis, m. and f., an end; 
pA., territories. 

octingent-i, -ae, -a, num. adj., 
eight hundred. 

tract-o, v.a. 1 [frequent, of 
traho, I draw), I draw out, 
I treat [lit., I keep dragging 

sepel-io, -ire, 'iv-i or "i-i, 
sepult-um, v.a. 4, I bury. 

ad-vers-us, -a, -um, past jmrt. 
{from ad"vert-o), opposite, 

vuln-us, -6ris, »., a wound. 

truz, truc-is, adj., fierce, wild. 

VTilt-us, -us, m., the counten- 
ance, look. 

mor-ior, -i, mortu-us sum, v. 
dep. 3, I die. 

Jac-eo, -ere, -ui, v.n. 2, I lie 

vid-eo, -ere, vid-i, vis-um, v.a. 
2, I see; paf<s., I seem. 

tiQ-isse/rom fero (ch. xxiv.). 

cael-um, -i, n., the sky, the 

vox. voc-is, /., the voice, lan- 

tot-US, -a, -um, gen., tot-Iu.s, 

adj., the whole, entire, 
domln-us, -i, m., a master, a 

talis, -e, adj., of such a kind, 
con-ting-o, -ere, 'tig-i, -tact- 

um, v.n. 3, I happen to, I 

befall (cum, tango). 


jung-0, -ere, junx-i, junct-um, 
v.a. 8, I join. 

se, reflexive pron. , 8hi<j. and pi. , 
himself, herself, itself, them- 
selves, recipere se, to be- 
take one's self. 

Lucan-i, -orum, m, pi., the 

Bnitti-i, -orum, m. pi., the 

per-g-o, -ere, Tex-i, Tect-um, 
v.n. 3, I proceed, I go (per, 

fer-rum, -ri, n., iron, a sword. 

ign-is, -is, m., fire. 

vast-o, v.a. 1, I lay waste, I 

de'popul-or, v. dep. 1, I lay 
utterly waste, I ravage. 

Praenest-e, -is,/., Praeneste. 

terr-or, -oris, m., great fear, 

redlm-o, -ere, 'em-i, "empt-um, 
v.a. 3, I buy back, I ransom 
(re, emo). 

cap-tivus, -tlvi, m., b, prisoner 
(capio), a captive. 

honorifice, adv., honourably. 

sine, prep. gov. abl., without. 

pre-tium, -tii, n., money, 




Fabrid-us, -ii, m., Fabricius. 
sic, adv., in this manner, so. 
ad'mir-or, v. dep., 1, 1 wonder 

at, I admire, 
paup-er, -6ris, adj., poor, 
co'gnosc-o, -ere, •gnov-i, 'gnit- 
um, v.a. 3, I perceive, I as- 
certain (cum, nosco), I know, 
par-s, -tis, /. , a part, a share ; 

'jd., a (political) party, 
sollicit-o, v.a. 1, I move vio- 
lently, I tempt, I bribe, 
con'temn-o, -ere, 'temps-i, 
•tempt-um, v.a. 3, I hold in 
contempt, I despise, 
quare, adv., why? wherefore 

{aU. o/quis, abl. of res). 
ad*mira-tio, -tionis, /., admira- 
tion, wonder, 
ten-eo, -ere, -ui {no supine), v.a. 

2, I hold, I have, 
aequ-us, -a, -um, adj., even, 

fair, just, 
cond-itio, -itionis, /., a condi- 
tion; pi., terms, 
praecip-tlus, -Ha, -uum, adj., 

principal, distinguished, 
vir, vir-i, m., a man. 
Cine-as, -ae, m., Cineas. 
ar-ma, -morum, n. pi., arms. 
ob'tin-eo, -ere, 'tinu-i, "tent- 
um, v.a. and n. 2, I hold, I 
obtain, I prevail. 


miss-US, from mitto (ch. xviii. ). 
prius, comp. adv., before, 

potu-erat, /roTn possum. 

pro-mitt-o, -ere, -mis-i, miss- 

um, v.a. 3, I send forward, 

I promise, 
med-icus, -ici, m., a physician, 
venen-um, -i, n., poison, 
ali-quis, (ali'quae,) ali-quid, 

pron. indef., some one, any. 
pol'lic-eor, -eri, •licit-us sum, 

V. dep. 2, I promise. 
vinc-io, -ire, vlnx-i, vinct-um, 

v.a. 4, I bind fast. 
re"duc-o, -ere, -dux-i, 'duct-um, 

v.a. 3, I lead back, I bring 

spond-eo, -ere, spopond-i, 

spons-um, v.a. 2, I pledge 

myself, I vow. 
ille, ilia, illud, pron. demons., 

that, he, she, it. 
dif'ficilius, comp. adv., with 

more difficulty, less easily 

bones-tas, -tatis, /., upright- 
sol, s51-is, m., the sun. 
cur-sus, -sus, m., a running, a 

course (curro, I run), 
a'vert-o, -ere, -i, 'vers-um, v.a. 

3, I turn away. 


Sicill-a, -ae,/., Sicily. 
pro"fect-us, from proficiscor 

(ch. xvi.). 
Man-ius, -ii, m., Manius. 
Cur-ius, -ii, m., Curius. 
Dentat-us, -i., m., Dentatus. 
Comel-ius, -ii, m., Cornelius. 
Lentul-us, -i, m., Lentulus. 
consulat-us, -us, m., the office 

of consul, consulship. 



re 'cess-itj/rom recede (ch. xiv.). 
Arg-os, -i, ace. Argos, n., Argos 

(also Arg-i, -orum, m.). 
Tarent-um, -i, w., Tarentum. 


Pun-Icus, -ica, -Icum, adj., 

Punic, Carthaginian. 
Af-er, -ra, -rum, adj., African. 
Dull-ius, -ii, m., Duilius. 
Cnae-us, -i, m., Cnaeiis. 
Asin-us, -i, m., Asinus. 
mar-e, -is { maria), ?i., 

the sea. 
nav-is, -is, y*., a ship, a vessel, 
rostr-atus, -ata, -atum, adj., 

beaked (rostrum, a beak). 
Liburn-us, -a, -um, adj., Li- 

frau-s, fraud-is,/., fraud, 
de'cip-io, -ere, "cep-i, ■cept-um, 

v.a. 3, I catch, I deceive 

(de, capio). 
Cartliaginieiis-is, -e, adj., Car- 
quattuordecim, indecl. num. 

adj., fourteen, 
merg-o, -ere, mers-i, mers-um, 

v.a. 3, I immerse, I sink. 
octo, indecl. num.. adj., eight. 
ull-us, -a, -um {geji. iilllus), 

adj., any. 
grat-ior, -ius {gen. -ioris), comp. 

adj., more pleasing (gratus). 
ln"vict-us, -a, -um, uncon- 

quered (vinco). 
plurimum, superl. adv., mostly, 

very much. 


Vols-0, -onis, m., Volso. 

Atil-ius, -ii, m., Atllius. 

Afric-a, -ae, /., Africa. 

trans •fer-o, v.a. irreg., I carry 

across (fero, ch. xxiv. ). 
Hamilc-ar, -iris, m., Hamil- 

vlct-u8, /?-om vinco (ch. iii.). 
sexaginta, indecl. num. adj., 

re"cip-io (ch. ii.), recipere se, 

to betake oneself, 
retro, adv., backwards, 
a-mitt-o (mitto, ch. xxxi.), 

v.n. 3, I lose. 
Regiil-us, -i, m., Regulus. 
re'man-eo, -ere, mans-i, v.n. 

2, I stay behind, I remain, 
saepius, comp. adv., more often 

(saepe, ch. xv.). 
septuaginta, indecl. num. adj., 

fid-es, -ei, /. , faith, trust ; in 

fidem accipere, to receive 

into trust, i.e., alliance. 
Carthag-o, -inis,/, Carthage. 


n*ol-o, n'ol-le, n"Olu-i, v.a. and 

n. irreg., I do not wish, I 

am unwilling (non, volo). 
dur-us, -a, -um, adj., hard. 
Lacedaemoni-i, -orum, m., the 

Xantipp-us, -i, m., Xantippus. 
tantum, adv., so greatly, 

quingent-i, -ae, -a, num. adj., 

five hundred, 
caten-a, -ae, /., a chain, 
con-jic-io, -ere, 'jec-i, 'ject-um, 

v.a. 3, I throw (together) 

(cum, jacio). 




Metell-us, -i, m,., Metellus. 

cop-ia, -iae, /., plenty ; pi. 
forces, troops. 

sex, num. adj. indecl., six. 

re*liqu-ias, -a, -um, adj., re- 
maining, the rest. 

err-o, v.n. 1, I wander. 

Nmnid-ae, -arum, m., the 

dediic-o, -ere, 'dux-i, •duct- 
urn, v.n. 3, I lead away. 

pomp-a, -ae, /., ceremony. 


mal-um, -i, n., a misfortune, 
per-muta-tio, -tionis, /., an 

vl'hil {contracted rnl), n. indecl., 

de'sin-o, -ere, 'siv-i or "si-i, 

•sit-um, v.n. 3, I leave off, 

I cease. 


com"plex-us, -us, m., an em- 

suad-eo, -ere, 'suas-i, "suas-um, 
v.n. 2, I advise. 

Poen-i, -orum, m., the Cartha- 

ad-mitt-o, -ere, -mis-i, -miss- 
um, v.a. 3, I admit, I allow 
to come, I commit. 

neg-o, v.a. and n. \, 1 deny, 
I refuse, I say no. 

Berv'io, v.n. 4, I am a slave. 

hones- tus, -ta, -turn, adj., 

re*gred-ior, -i, -gTess-us sum, 
V. dep. 3, I return, I retreat. 

supplic-ium, -ii, n., punish- 
ment, torture, 

ex'sting-uo, -uere, 'stinx-i, 
"stinct-um, v.a. 3, I put out 
entirely, I kill. 


Lutat-ius, -ii, m., Lutatius. 
Catiil-us, -i, m., Catulus. 
Aul-us, -i, 771., Aulus. 
Postum-ius, -ii, m. , Postumius. 
Albin-us, -i, m., Albinus. 
quadringent-i, -ae, -a, num. 

adj., four hundred, 
aeg-er, aegr-a, aegr-um, adj., 

sick, ill. 
a-scend-o, -ere, -scend-i, 'scens- 

um, v.n. 3, I ascend (ad, 

scando, I climb), 
vianer-o, v.a. 1, I wound, 
superi-or, -us, comp. adj., 

higher, former (superus). 
niybae-um, -i, n., Lilybaeum, 
virt-us, -litis,/., bravery (vir, 

a man), valour, 
de'merg-o, v.a. 3, I sink 

(mergo, ch. xxx.). 
tre'decim, indecl. num. adj.y 

argent-um, -1, n., silver, 

pond-US, -6ris, n. , a weight, 
red'ig-o, -ere, "eg-i, -act-um, 

v.a. 3, I bring back (re, ago), 
class-is, -is, /. , a fleet, 
duodecim, indecl. num. adj., 

trib-tlo, -uere, tribu-i, tribut- 

um, v.a. 3, T give, I yield. 




secund-us, -a, -urn, num. adj., 

ln*fer-o, 'fer-re, •tul-i, il -lat- 
um, v.a. irreg., I carry to 

or against. 
Hannib-al, -alis, m., Hannibal. 
Sagnrt-um, -i, n., Sagnntum. 
Hispani-a, -ae, /., Spain, 
amic-us, -a, -um, adj., friendly, 
ag-gred-ior, -i, -gress-us sum, 

V. dep. 3, I begin. 
de-nunti-o, v.a. 1, I give notice 

abs'tin-eo, -ere, -ui, "tent-um, 

v.n. 2, I abstain from (ab, 

mand-o, v.a. 1, I order, 
soc-ius, -ii, m. , an ally. 
Sagunt-ini, -Inorum, m., the 

Inter-ea, adv., meanwhile, 
grav-is, -e, adj., heavy, severe; 

superl. gravissimus. 
poen-a, -ae, /., a punishment, 

a loss. 


Scipi-o, -onis, m., Scipio. 
Tiber-ius, -ii, m., Tiberius. 
Sempron-ius, -ii, m. , Sempronius 
In'dict-us from indicere (oh. 

relict-US from relinquo (ch. 

Hasdrub-al, -alis, m., Has- 

Pyrenae-us, -i, m.,the Pyrenees. 
Alp-es, -ium,/., the Alps. 
In-vl-us, -a, -um, a(7y. , trackless, 

impassable (in, via, a way). 

pate'fac-io, -ere, 'fec-i, 'factum, 
v.a. 3, 1 throwopen(ch. Ixvi. ). 

tra"d-o, -ere, -did-i, -dit-um, 
v.a. 3, I hand over, I betray; 
pass. I am reported. 

ped-es, -itis, m., a foot soldier 
(pes, a foot), infantry. 

adduc-o, -ere, 'dux-i, 'duct- 
urn, v.a. 3, I lead to, I 
bring to. 

Gracch-us, -i, m., Gracchus. 

advent-us, -us, m., an arrival, 
an approach (ad, venio). 

Arimin-um, -i, n., Ariminum. 

tra'jlc-io, ere, 'jec-i, 'ject-um, 
v.a. 3, I convey over (trans, 
across ; jacio, I throw). 


oc'curr-o, -ere, -i, 'curs-um, 
v.n. 3, I fall in with (ob, 
curro, I run), I meet. 

com'miss-us, -a, -um, from 
committo (ch. xxi.). 

Trebi-a, -ae, /., the Trebia. 

amn-is, -is, m. , a stream. 

conflig-o, -ere, -flix-i, -flict-um, 
v.n. 3, I fight, I engage. 

inde, adv., from that place, 

Tuscl-a, -ae, /., Etruria. 

Flamin-ius, -ii, m., Flaminius. 

inter -im-o, -ere, 'em-i, 'empt- 
um, v.a. 3, I take away, I 
kill (inter, emo, I take). 

ceter, -a, -um, adj., the other. 

dif-fiig-io, -ere, 'fug-i, v.n. 3, 
I flee (in diflorent direc- 

dif-fer-o, -re, dis tul-i, dl -lat- 
um, v.a. 3, I defer, I delay. 



impet-us, -us, m., an attack, 
frang-o, -ere, freg-i, fract-um, 

v.a. 3, I break, 
invent-us from invenio (ch. 



qulngent-esimus, -esima, -esi- 
mum, num. adj., the five 

Aemil-ius, -ii, m., Aemilius. 

Paul-US, -i, m., Paulus. 

P = Publius (ch. xviii.). 

Terent-ius, -ii, w., Terentius. 

Varr-o, -onis, m., Varro. 

amb-o, -ae, -o, adj. pL, both, 

mon-eo, v.a. 2, I warn. 

calid-us, -a, -um, adj., ardent. 

Inipati-ens, -entis, adj., im- 

aliter, adv., in another manner, 

varum, adv., truly, but yet. 

Im patienti-a, ae, /., im- 
■ patience. 

Vic-US, -i, m. , a village. 

Cann-ae, -arum,/., Cannae. 


saucl-o, v.a. 1, I wound. 

damn-um, -i, 7i., loss, hurt. 

praetor-ius, -ia, -ium, adj. , be- 
longing to a praetor, suhst. 
an ex-praetor. 

mod-ius, -ii, m., a peck. 

annul-us, -i, w., a ring, dim- 
inutive of annus (ch. i. ) 

Carthag-o, -mis,/., Carthage. 

de'trah-o, -ere, 'trax-i, 'tract- 
um, v.a. 3, I draw off. 

iibi, adv., where, when. 


met-us, -us, m., fear, 
integ-er, -ra, rum, adj., whole, 

cas-us, -us, m., a falling, an 

accident (cado). 
magis, comj9. ac^v,, more, rather. 


tan'dem, adv., at length. 

ibrdem, adv.., in the same 

nat-us /rom nascor (ch. i.). 

post-6rior, -erius, comp. adv., 
next after, later (post). 

ap*para-tus, -tus, m., prepara- 
tion, equipment (ad, paro). 

fact-US /ro77i facio (ch. vii. ). 

div-inus, -ina, -Inum, adj., di- 

quid 'dam from quidam (ch. 

in'sum, 'esse, 'fu-i, v. irreg., 
I am in. 

ex'istim-o, v.a. 1, I consider, 
I think. 

ad "60, adv., to such an extent. 

num-en, -mis, n., a god. 

ser-mo, -monis, m., talk, con- 


Syph-ax, -acis, m., Syphax. 
Numid-ia, -iae, /. , Numidia. 
con'jung-o, -ere, -junx-i, -junct. 
um, V. a. 3, I join (together). 
spol-ium, -ii, n., spoil, 
aud-io, V.a. 4. I hear. 



de"ser-o, -ere, -ui, -turn, v. a. 3, 

I leave, I abandon. 
fl-eo, -ere, flev-i, flet-um, v.n, 

2, I cry, I weep, 
re'liqu-isse from relinquo (ch. 

Masinlss-a, ae, m., Masinissa. 
amlc-itia, -itiae, /. , friendship, 
fec-erat /rom facio (ch. vii. ). 


capt-us/roTO capio (ch, vii.). 
circimi'duc-o, -ere, 'dux-i, -duct- 

um, v.a. 3, I lead round, 
prand-ium, -ii, w., luncheon, 

uter'que, utra*que, utrum'que, 

adj., both, each (singly), 

compare with ambo (ch. xl. ) . 
iii"stni-o, -ere, 'strux-i, -struct- 

um, v.a. 3, I draw up in 

qual-is, -e, adj., such as, of 

what kind {see talis, ch. 


vix, adv., scarcely, hardly. 

peri-tus, -ta, -turn, adj., ex- 
perienced, skilful. 

e'duc-o, -ere, 'dux-i, "duct-um, 
v.a. 3, I lead out. 

paene, adv., nearly, almost. 

postremo, adv., lastly, at last 

e"vad-o, -ere, 'vas-i, "vas-um, 
v.n. 3, I go out, I slip off, I 

glo-ria, -riae,/., glory, renown. 

trans 'ig-o, -ere, eg-i, -act-um, i 

v.a. 3, I bring to an end 

(trans, ago). 
Macedon-Icus, -ica, -icum, adj.y 

Philipp-us, -i, m., Philip, 
quinquag-esimus, -esima, -esi- 

mum, num. adj., fiftieth. 
Flamimn-us, -i, m., Flaminln- 

prospere, adv., successfully, 
dat-us, from do (ch. xix. ). 
Syri-acus, -aca, -acum, adj., 

Antiocli-us, -i, m., Antiochus. 
M' = Manius. 
Acil-ius, -ii, m., Acilius. 
Glahr-io, -ionis, m., Glabrio. 
Achai-a, -ae, /., Achaia. 
bene, adv., well, 
noct-umus, -luna, -umum,a<(;., 

nocturnal, at night. 


Afrlc-anus, -ani, m., Africanus. 
nav-alis, -iile, adj., naval, 
circa, prep. gov. ace, around. 
Sipyl-us, -i, 771., Sipylus. 
Magnesi-a, -ae, /., Magnesia. 
Asi-a, -ae, /., Asia, 
fund-o, -ere, fud-i, fus-um, v.a. 

3, I pour out, I rout, I shed. 
quinquaglnta,nwm. adj. iiidecl.t 

Prusi-as, -ae, m., Prusias. 
Bithynl-a, -ae,/., Bithynia. 
re'pet-o, -ere, petiv-ior "peti-i, 

•petit-um, v.a. 3, I demand 

back, I bring back. 
bib-o, -ere, bib-i {no supine), 

v.a. 3, I drink. 



Libyss-a, -ae, /., Libyssa. 
Nicomedi-euses, -ensium, m., 
the Nicomedians. 


Phanie-a, -ae, m., Phamea. 
equit-atus, -atus, m., cavalry, 
prae'sum, -esse, 'fu-i, v.n., I 

am over, I have command of 

[gov. dat.). 
ibi, adv., there, 
milit-o, v.n. 1, I serve (in the 

reverent-ia, -iae, /., respect, 

parat-issimus, superl. of per/. 

part. o/*paro (ch. xxx.). 
consult-us, -a, -um, per/, part. 

o/consulo, knowing, skilful, 
hab-eor, -eri, habit-us sum, 

pass. V. 2, I am considered, 

regarded (habeo, ch. i.). 
vel. . . vel, conj., either. . .or (volo, 

I wish). 
vTt-o, v.a. 1, I avoid. 


adj. , 

cla-rus, -ra, -rum, 

nowned, famous, 
diru-o, -ere, -i, -turn, v.a. 3, I 

var-ius, -ia, -ium, adj., various, 
orna-mentum, -menti, n., an 

re'cognosc-o, -ere, •cognov-i, 

•cognit-um, v.a. 3, I recog- 
septingent-esimus, -esima, -esi- 

mum, nvm. adj., the seven 


av-us, -i, m., a grandfather, an 

mer-eo, v.a. 2, I get, I deserve, 
scilicet, adv., namely 

Numant-Ini, -inorum, m., the 

opulent-issimus, -issima, -issi- 

mum, superl. adj., richest 

(ops, wealth). 
i"gnobil-is, -e, adj., ignoble. 
Mancin-us, -i, ni., Mancinus. 
iterum, adj., a second time, 

in*fam-is, -e, adj., disgrace- 
in-fring-o, -ere, -freg-i, -fract- 

um, v.a. 3, I break. 
auc-tor, -toris, m., an author, 
solut-us, -a, -um, per/, j^cirt. of 

solvo (ch. xxiii.). 
foed-us, -6ris, n., a treaty, 
i'gnomin-ia, -iae,/., disgrace, 
bis, adv., twice. 
sub'jug-o, v.a. 1, I vanquish, 
secundo, adv., a second time. 




viti-osus, -osa, -osum, 
wicked, depraved. 

i-gnav-us, -a, -um, adj., indol- 
ent, lazy. 

ex-erc-eo, v.a. 2, I employ, I 

pun-io, v.a. 4, I punish. 

acerb-itas, -itatis, /. , severity. 

corTig-o, -ere, Tex-i, rectum, 
v.a. 3, I correct, I improve 
(cum, rego). 



part'lm, adv., partly (partior, 

I divide), 
ded-itio, -itionis, /., surrender. 
Numant-ia, -iae, /., Numantia. 
obsess-us, per/, part, of obsideo 

(ch. xvii. ). 
confic-io, -ere, 'fec-i, *fect-um, 

v.a. 3, 1 finish, I kill, wear out. 
sol-um, -i, n., the land, 
e'vert-o, -ere, 'vert-i, vers-um, 

v.a. 3, I thrust out, I de- 
stroy, I overthrow, 
provinc-ia, -iae,/., a province. 
Attal-us, -i, m., Attains. 
Eumen-es, -is, m., Eumenes. 
mcrtu-us, per/, part, of niorior 

(ch. XXV.). 
lier-es, -edis, m, and f, an 

testa-mentum, -menti, n., a 



Nasic-a, -ae, m., Xasica. 
Calpurn-ius, -ii,7n.,Calpurnius, 
Besti-a, -ae, m., Bestia. 
Jugurtti-a, -ae, m., Jugurtha. 
illat-us, from infero (ch. 

Adherbal, -alls, m., Adherbal. 
Eiempsal, -alls, m., Hiempsal. 
Micips-a, -ae, m., Micipsa. 
cor*ruinp-o, -ere, Tup-i, -rupt- 

um, v.a. 3, I break up, I 

pecun-ia, -iae,/., money, , 

flaglti-osissinius, -osissinia, -os- \ 

issimum, superl. adj., most 

disgraceful (tlagitiosus). 
Im'prob-o, v.a. 1, I disapprove, 

I reiect. 

In-seqn-or, -i, -secut-us sum, 
V. dep. 3, I follow, I succeed. 

Spur-ius, -ii, m., Spurius. 

igndminiose, ado., disgrace- 


Caecil-ius, -ii, m., Caecilius. 

sever- itas, -itatis, /., severity. 

modera-tio, -tionis, /., modera- 

correct-US, perf part, from 
corrigo (ch. Ii. ). 

cru-entus, -enta, -entum, adj., 
cruel, bloody. 

disciplin-a, ae, /., discipline. 

posit-unis, /row pono (ch. x.). 

success-us, from succedo (ch. 


Mar-ius, -ii, m., Marius. 

Bocch-us, -i, m., Bocchus. 

Mauritani-a, -ae, /., Mauri- 

pariter, adv., equally, in like 

all 'quant-US, -a, -um, adj. , some, 

termin-us, -i, m., a limit, an 

quaes-tor, -toris, m., a quaes- 

Sull-a, -ae, m., Sulla. 

ante, adv. and prep., before. 

triumph-US, -i, m. , a triumph. 

act-US, /row ago (ch. ii.). 

curr-us, -us, m., a chariot. 

caten-atns, -ata, -atum, adj.^ 
chained, bound (catena, a 



jus-sus, -sus, m., a command, 
career, -6ris, m., a prison. 
8trangul-o, v. a. 1, I strangle. 


dum, adv., while. 

M = Marcus. 

Caepio, -onis, m., Caepio. 

Cimbr-i, -orum, w., the Cimbri. 

Teuton-es, -um, m., the Teu- 

Tigurin-i, -orum, m., the Tigu- 

Amt»r6n-es, -um, m., the Am- 

German-i, -orum, m., the Ger- 

juxta, prep. gov. ace, close to, 

Rhodan-us, -i, m., the Rho- 

Inter "nec-io, -ionis, /., a mas- 
sacre, destruction, slaughter. 

at-ter-o, -ere, 'trlv-i, 'trit-um, 
v.a. 3, I rub against, I de- 
stroy (ad, tero, I rub). 

tim-or, -oris, m., fear, alarm. 

grand-is, -e, adj., great, large. 

Jugurth-inus, -Ina, -mum, adj., 

de'cern-o, -ere, 'erev-i, "cret- 
um, v.a. 3, I decree, I 

tertio, adv. , for the third time. 

quarto, adv., for the fourth 

delat-us, /rom defero (ch. ix.). 

quia, C071J., because. 

Cimbr-icus, -ica, -icum, adj., 

pro*trali-o, -ere, "trax-i, 'tract- 

urn, v.a. 3, I draw out, I 
prolong, I protract. 
col"leg-a, -ae, m., a colleague. 


du'cent-i, -ae, -a, num. adj., two 

Teutobod-us, -i, m., Teutobo- 

quinto, adv. , for the fifth time, 
felic-ius, adv. {comp. of felici- 

ter), more successfully (ch. 

simul, adv., together, at the 

same time, 
aut, C071J., or aut.,.aut, either 

fug-a, -ae, /., flight. 
caes-us, from caedo (ch. xvii.). 
decret-us,/roOT decemo (ch. Iv. ). 


sex'cent-esimus, -esima, -esi- 
mum, num. adj., the six 

sexag-esimus, -esima, -esimum, 
num. adj., the sixtieth. 

civ-ilis, -lie, adj., civil (civis). 

Mithridat-icus, -Ica, -icum, adj.^ 

sexies, num. adv. , six times. 

Mithridat-es, -is {ace, -en), w., 

gest-urus, /7*om gero (ch. iv.). 

paulisper, adv., for a short 
time (paulus, very little). 

soci-alis, -ale, adj., social, con- 

intra, prep. gov. ace, within, 
in the interior. 



affect-o, v.a. 1, I strive, I 


1111c, adv., there. 

in "gred-ior, -i, gress-us sum, v. 

dep. 3, I walk into, I enter, 
fu turns, future part, of sum 

(ch. viii.). 

Octav-ius, -ii, m., Octavius. 
Cinn-a, -ae, m., Cinna. 
Pont-us, -i, m., Pontus. 
Nicomed-es, -is {ace, -en), m., 

pat-ior, -i, pass-us sum, v. dep. 

3, I suffer, 
re'spond-eo, -ere, -spond-i, 

spons-um, v.a. 2, I answer, 
fore, future inf. of sum (ch. 

Irat-us, /rowi irascor (ch. xv. ). 
Cappadoci-a, ae, /., Cappado- 

Aiiol)arzan-es, -is,»i., Ariobar- 



In'vad-o, -ere, "vas-i, "vas-um, 

v.a. 3, I go against, I attack. 
PapMagon-ia, -iae, /., Paphla- 

pell-o, -ere, pepul-I, puls-um, 

v.a. 3, I drive. 
Pylaemen-es, -is, m., Pylae- 

Ephes-us, -i, m., Ephesus. 
nter-ae, -arum,/. pL, a letter, 
ubi'cunque, adv., wherever. 
Archela-us, -i, m.. Archelaus. 

cognit-us, from cognosce (ch. 

lec-tus, -ta, -turn ip^rf part, of 

lego, I choose), chosen, se- 
quin'decim, num. adj. indecl., 

ex'stinct-us, from exstingtio 

(ch. XXXV.). 
tri'd-uum, -ui, n., three days 

(tres, dies), 
nud-us, -a, -um, adj., naked. 
pal-US, -tidis, /., a marsh. 
lat-eo {no supine), v.n 2, I lie 



corioqu-ium, -ii, n., a confer- 
ence (cum, loquor, I speak). 

terg-um, -i, n. , a back. 

pericul-um, -i, n., danger. 

re-par-o, v.a. 1, I get again I 

in 'gress-us, from ingredior 
(ch. Iviii. ). 

pro-scrib-o, -ere, *scrips-i, 
"script-um, v.a. 3, I pro- 
scribe, I outlaw. 

com"pell-o, -ere, "pul-i, -puls- 
um, v.a. 3, I drive together, 
I compel. 


univers-us, -a, -um, adj., the 

Graec-ia, -iae,/, Greece. 

5r-o, v.a. 1, 1 pray. 

sub-ven-io, -ire, "ven-i, -vent- 
urn, v.n. 4, I come to lielp. 

Norban-us, -i, m., Norbanus. 

longe. adv., far. 



Capu-a, -ae, /. , Capua, 
coii'vert-o, -ere, "vert-i, 'vers- 

um, v.a. and n. 3, I turn 

sangu-is, -mis, m., blood, 
mut-o, v.a. 1, I change. 
Carb-o, -onis, m., Carbo. 
per-sequ-or, -i, -secut-us sum, 

V. dep. 3, I follow after, I 



Pompei-us, -i, m., Pompey. 
adolesc-ens, -entis, com., a 

Industri-a, -ae, /., diligence, 

prae-flc-io, -ere, "fec-i, 'fect-um, 

v.a. 3, I place over, 
trans -gred-ior, i, 'gress-us 

sum, v.dep. 3, I cross over. 
Domit-ius, -ii, m., Domitius. 
Marl-anus, -ana, -anum, adj. of 

Marius, Marian. 
Hiarb-as, -ae, m., Hiarbas. 
funest-issimus, -issima, -issi- 

mum, superl. adj,, most de- 
structive (funestus). 
Itali-cus, -ca, -cum, adj.^ 

trah-o, -ere, trax-i, tract-um. 

v.a. 3, I draw, I protract. 


nunp-o, -ere, rup-i, rupt-um, 

v.a. 3, I break, 
rursus, adv., back, again, 
fortun-a, -ae, /., fortune. 
Cott-a, -ae, m. , Ootta. 
Clialced-on, -uuis,/.,Chalcedon, 
c5g:-o, -ere, coeg-i, coact-um. 

v.a. 3, I drive (cum, ago). 

Cyzic-us, -i, /., Cyzicus. 

trans -tul-isset, fro7n transfero 
(ch. xxxi.). 

obsid-io, -ionis, /., a siege. 

com-mor-or, v. dep., 1, I lin- 

con -sum-o, -ere, 'sumps-i, 
•sumpt-um, v.a. 3, I con- 
sume, I waste. 

Byzant-ium, -ii, n., Byzantium. 

nunc, adv., now. 

Constantinopol-is, -is, /., Con- 

Lucull-us, -i, m., Lucullus. 

op*prim-o, -ere, press-i, press- 
um, v.a. 3, I overpower. 

hiem-s, -is,/., winter. 

aest-as, -atis, /., summer. 


pirat-a, -ae, m., a pirate, 
infest-o, v.a. 1, I trouble, I 

naviga-tio, -tionis, /., naviga- 
tut-us, -a, -um, adj., safe, 
pauc-us, -a, -um, adj., small; 

pL, few. 
felic-itas, -itatis, /., success, 
celer-itas, -itatis, /. , quickness. 
Tigran-es, -is, m., Tigranes. 
suscept-us, from suscipio 

(ch. vi.). 
Armeni-a, -ae,/., Armenia, 
min-or, -us, comp. adj., less, 

lesser (parvus). 
di'rip-io, -ere, 'ripu-i, "rept-um, 

v.a. 3, I tear in pieces, I lay 

quadraginta, nww. adj. indecl.f 




centurl-o, -5ni8, m., a centur- 

com-es, -Itis, com., a compan- 

multo, adv., much. 

saev-io, v.n. 4, I am fierce, 

Phamac-es, -is, m., Pharnaces. 

mor-s, -tis, /. , death. 

coact-us, from cogo (ch. Ixiii.). 

haur-io, -ire, haus-i, haust-um, 
v.a. 4, I swallow. 

autem, conj., but, moreover. 

Bospor-us, -i, m., the Bosphor- 

sediti-o, -onis, /., sedition. 


Cicer-o, -onis, m. Cicero. 

ora-tor, -toris, m., an orator. 

Anton-ius, -ii, m., Antony. 

Serg-ius, -ii, m., Sergius. 

Catilin-a, -ae, m., Catiline. 

gen-US, -6ris, n., a family. 

ingen-ium, -ii, n., ability, cha- 
racter, disposition. 

prav-us, -a, -um, adj., bad, 

delend-us, -a, -um, from deleo 
(ch. xxii.). 

con'jur-o, v.a. 1, I conspire. 

aud-ax, -acis, adj., bold, dar- 

de prehend-o, -ere, 'prehend-i, 
prehens-um, v.a. 3, I seize 
upon, I apprehend. 


Jul-ius, -ii, -m., Julius. 
Caes-ar, -aris, m., Caesar. 
Bibiil us, -i, m., Bibulus. 
GaU-ia, -iae. .. Gaul. 

Illyrl-cum, -ci, n., lllyricum. 

prime, adv. , at first. 
Helvet-ii, -iorum, m., the Hel- 
Sequan-i, -orum, m., the 

ocean-US, -i, m., the ocean. 
Britanni-cus, -ca, -cum, adj.^ 

domo, -are, -ui, -Itum, v.a. 1, 

I vanquish, 
novem, mim,. adj. indecl., nine. 
Rhen-us, -i, m., the Rhine, 
circui-tus, -tus, m., a circuit, 
pat-eo, -ere, -ui, v.n. 2, I am 

open, I lie open, 
tricies, num. adv., thirty 

cent-eni, -enae, -ena, d'l.^trih. 

num. adj. pi., a hundred, 
pas-sus, -sus, m., a step, a pace. 
Britann-i, -orum, vi., the 

intul-i /rom infero (ch. xxxvii). 
ne...quidem, not even. 
obs-es, -idis, m. and f, a 

accept-us from accipio (ch. 

stlpendi-arius, -aria, -arium, 

adj., tributary, 
tribu-tum, -ti, n., a tribute, 
ann-uum, -ui, n., a yearly 

sestert-ius, -i, m., a sesterce, 
quadringenties, adv., four hun- 
dred times, 
im "man-is, -e, adj., enormous, 

tot, num. adj. wdecl., so many, 
succes-sus, -sus, m. , a success. 
ter, num. adv. three times. 



Arvem-i, -onim, w., the 

semel, adv., once, 
praes-ens, -entis, adj., present. 
Gennan-ia, -iae, /. , Germany. 
Titur-ius, -ii, m., Titurius. 
Auruncide-ius, -ii, nu, Aurun- 

insid-iae, -iarum, /. pi., an 

ambush, a plot. 


ex*secr-or, v. dep. 1, I curse, 
I execrate. 

lacrlma-bilis, -bile, adj., la- 

praeter, prep. gov. ace, besides. 

calamit-as, -atis, /., a mis- 
fortune, disaster. 

ac'cid-o, -ere, "cid-i, v.n. 3,1 
happen, befall. 

posc-o, -ere, p6posc-i, v. a. 3, 
I demand. 

duM-us, -a, -um, adj., doubtful. 

contra'dic-o, -ere, dix-i, 'dict- 
um, v. a. 3, I speak against, 
I oppose. 

Marcell-us, -i, m., Marcellus. 

Cat-o, -onis, m., Cato. 

con-greg-o, v. a. 1, I assemble. 

adversum, prep. gov. ace, 

nobil-itas, -itatis, /., nobility. 

Macedon-ia, -iae,/., Macedonia. 


-ua, -uum, 

vac-uus, -ua, -uum, adj. 

val-idus, -ida, -Idum, adj. 


for-tis, -te, adj., strong. 

Afran-ius, -ii, m., Afranius. 

Petre-ius, -ii, m., Petreius 

inter 'ven-io, -ire, 'ven-i, -vent- 
urn, v.n. 4, I come between, I 
intervene, I come on. 

nee, adv., not, (ch. xix.) 

sc-io, -ire, sciv-i and sci-i, scit- 
um, v.a. 4, I know (how). 

Thessal-ia, -iae,/., Thessalia. 

Phaxsal-ia, iae,/., Pharsalia. 

pro*duc-o, -ere, 'dux-i, 'duct- 
um, v.a. 3, I lead forward. 


nunquam, adv., never. 

major, -oris, comp. adj., greater 

melior, oris, comp. adj., better 

con' ven-io, -ire, 'veu-i, 'vent- 
um, v.71. 4, I come together, 
I agree upon. 

facile, adv., easily. 

sub'act-urus from subigo (ch. 

barbar-us, -i, n., a barbarian. 

con'ten-tio, -tionis, /., earnest- 

postrem-us, -a, -um, superL, 
adj., the last (post). 

di'rept-us from diripio (ch. 

Alexandri-a, -ae, /., Alexan- 

Aegypt-us, -i,/., Egypt. ^ 

tut-or, -oris, w., a guardian. 

juven-llis, -lie, adj., youthful. 

conspic-io, -ere, 'spex-i, 'spect- 
um, v.a. 3, I behold, I see. 

lacriin-a, -ae, /. , a tear. 



in'tu-eor, -eri, -tuit-us sum, v. 
dep. 2, I gaze upon, I behold, 
quondam, adv., formei-ly. 


Ptolemae-us, -i, m., Ptolemy. 
Nil-US, -i, m., the Nile. 
lor-ica, -icae, / , a cuirass, 
pot-ior, -iri, potit-us sum, v. 

dep. 4, I take possession of. 
Cleopatr-a, ae, /., Cleopatra, 
sor-or, -oris, /, , a sister. 
co'eg-it from cogo (ch. Ixiii.). 
corp-us, -6ris, n., a body. 


Sex-tus, -ti, m., Sextus. 
Mund-a, -ae, /, Munda. 
denique, adv., last. 
occis-us/?-om occido (ch. vii.). 


com*pon-o, -ere, 'pos-ui, -posit- 

um, v.a. 3, I put together, 

I finish. 
Insolentius, comp. adv., more 

or too arrogantly (insolenter) . 
liber-tas, -tatis, /., liberty, 
volun-tas, -tatis,/., will. 
prae"st-o, -are, 'stit-i, 'stit- 

um and 'stat-um, v.a. 1, I 

give, I ofi'er, I confer, 
antea, adv., formerly, before, 
as'surg-o, -ere, -suiTex-i, -sur- 

rect-um, v.n. 3, I rise up 

(ad, surgo). 
reg-ius, -ia, -ium, adj., regal, 
tyxannic-us, -a, -um, adj., 

amplius, comp. adv., more. 

coTiJurat-us, -i, m., a con- 

Cass-ius, -ii, m., Cassius. 

Servil-ius, -ii, m., Servilius. 

Casc-a, -ae, m., Casca. 

cur-ia, -iae, /., the Curia or 

con*f6d-io, -ere, 'fod-l, -foss- 
um, v.a. 3, I pierce through. 


Interfect-us /roTn interficio (ch. 

per"cus-sor, -soris, m., a striker, 

anassa8sin(percutio,I strike), 
fav-eo, -ere, ^v-i, faut-um, 

v.n. 2, I favour, I am 

con-or, V. dep. 1, I attempt. 
turb-o, v.a. 1, I throw into 

judic-o, v.a. 1, I consider, I 

Pans-a, -ae, m., Pansa. 
Hirt-ius, -ii, m., Hirtius. 
Octavlan-us, -i, ?;?., Octavianus. 
juss-erat/rom jubeo (ch. xxiv.). 
Augnst-us, -i, m., Augustus. 
potit-us jrom potior (ch. Ixx.). 
e'ven-io, -ire, -ven-i, -vent-um, 

r.7i. 4, I happen. I turn out. 
par-eo, v.n. 2, I obey. 


con-fug-io, -ere, "fug-i, -fugit- 

um, v.n. 3, I flee. 
Lepid-as, -i, m., Lepidus. 
oper-a, -ae, /., exertion, aid. 
ad"opt-o, v.a. 1, I adopt (ad, 

opto. I select). 



extorqu-eo, -ere, 'tors-i, "tort- 
urn, v.a. 2, I obtain by force. 


inter'fec-tor, -toris, wr., a 

mov-eo, -ere, mov-i, mot-um, 

v.a. 2, I stir up, I excite. 
Ori-ens, -entis, ?n., the east 

(yVom orior, ch. iii.). 
re 'mans-erat from remaneo, 

(ch. xxxi. ). 
Philipp-i, -orum, m. pl.j 

divis-us/rom divido (ch. xviii.). 


interim, adv., meanwhile, 
conflu-o, -ere, -flux-i, -flux-um, 

v.n. 3, I flock together. 
bell-o, v.n. 1, I carry on war. 
rup-it /ro7?i rumpo (ch. Ixiii. ). 
Pers-ae, -arum, m. , the Persians 
pestilent-ia, -iae, /., disease, 

in-st-o, -are, 'stit-i, -stit-um, 

v.n. 1, I press hard upon. 
Parth-i, -orum, m., the 

Parthians . 
regin-a, -ae,/., a queen. 


cupid-Itas, -Itatis, /., a desire, 

mulle-bris, -bre, acZ;., womanish 
opt-o, v.a. 1, I desire. 
iUustr-is, -e, adj., famous. 
Act-ium, -ii, n., Actium, 
desper-o, v.a. 1, I despair of. 
interem-it from interimo (ch. 

asp-is, -idis, /., a viper, an 

adject-us/row adjicio (ch. v.). 
prae-pon-o, -ere, -pos-ui, -posit- 

um, v.a. 3, I place over. 
Gall-us, -i, n., Gallus. 
jud-ex, -icis, m., a judge, a 

init-ixim, -ii, n. , a beginning, 
principat-us, -us, m., absolute 

ob-eo, ire, -iv-i, 'i-i, -it-urn, 

v.n. irreg., I die. 
Atell-a, -ae, /., Atella. 
camp-us, -i, m., a plain. 
Mart-ius, -ia, -ium, adj., of 

sepult-us from sepelio (cK 




(Tlie numerals refer to the Chapters.) 

a, ab, 1. 

adventus, 38. 

AUia, 19. 

al)sens, 22. 

adversum, 67. 

Alpes, 38. 

abstineo, 37. 

adversus, 20, 25. 

alter, 12. 

absum, 5. 

aedifico, 7. 

ambo, 40. 

ac, 4 

aeger, 36. 

Ambrones, 55. 

accedo, 15. 

Aegyptus, 69. 
Aemilius, 40. 

amicitia, 44. 

acceptus, 66. 

amicus, 10. 

accido, 67. 

aequus, 27. 

amicus (adj.), 37. 

accipio, 7. 

aestas, 63. 

amitto, .31. 

acerbitas, 51. 

aetas, 16. 

amnis, 39. 

Achaia, 46. 

Afer, 30. 

amplio, 5. 

acies, 18. 

affecto, 57. 

amplius, 72. 

Acilius, 46. 

afficio, 10. 

ancilla, 8. 

Actium, 77. 

Afranius, 68. 

Ancus, 6. 

actus, 54. 

Africa, 31. 

angustia, 23. 

ad, 2. 

Africanus, 47. 

Anio, 20. 

adduce, 38. 

ager, 9. 

aimulus, 41. 

adeo, 43. 

aggredior, 37. 

amius, 1. 

Adherbal, 52. 

ago, 2. 

annuum, 66. 

adhuc, 8. 

ala, 21. 

ante, 54. 

adimo, 11. 

Albani, 5. 

antea, 72. 

adjectus, 77. 

Albinus, 36. 

Antemnates, 3. 

adjicio, 5. 

Alexandria, 69. 

Aiitiochus, 46. 

adjungo, 8. 

Algidum, 17. 

antiquissimus, 18. 

admiratio, 27. 

aliquantus, 54. 

Antonius, 65. 

admiror, 27. 

aliqniis, 28. 

apparatus, 43. 

admitto, 35. 

aliquot, 24. 

appello, 14. 

adolescens, 62. 

aliter, 40. 

Appius, 23. 

adopto, 74. 

alius, 5. 

apud, 19. 



Apulia, 22. 
aqua, 23. 
Archelaus, 59. 
Ardea, 10. 
ardeo, 5. 
argentum, 36. 
Argos, 29. 
Ariminum, 38. 
Ariobarzanes, 58. 
anna, 27. 
Armenia, 64. 
anno, 21. 
aro, 17. 
Aruns, 14. 
Arvemi, 66. 
ascendo, 36. 
Asia, 47. 
Asinus, 30. 
aspis, 77. 
assurgo, 72. 
at, 37. 
Atella, 77. 
Atilius, 31. 
Attalus, 51. 
attero, 55. 
atque, 2. 
auctor, 50. 
audax, 65. 
audio, 44. 
Augustus, 73. 
Aulus, 36. 
aureus, 20. 
aunim, 19. 
Auninculeius, 66. 
aut, 56. 
autem, 64. 
auxilium, 15. 
Aventinus, 6. 
averto, 28. 
avus, 49. 

barbarus, 69. 

bello, 76. 
bellum, 3. 
bene, 46. 
Bestia, 52. 
bibo, 47. 
Bibulus, 66. 
bis, 50. 
Bithynia, 47. 
Bocchus, 53. 
Bosponis, 64. 
Britanni, 66. 
Britannicus, 66. 
Bruttii, 26. 
Brutus, 11. 
Byzantium, 63. 

C, 20. 

Caecilius, 53. 
caedo, 17. 
Caenninensis, 3. 
Caepio, 55. 
caesus, 56. 
Caius, 20. 
calamitas, 67. 
calidus, 40. 
Calpumius, 52. 
Camillus, 18. 
Campania, 22. 
campus, 77. 
Cannae, 40. 
capio, 15. 
Capitolium, 7. 
Cappadocia, 58. 
captivus, 8, 26. 
captus, 45. 
Capua, 61. 
caput, 22. 
Carbo, 61. 
career, 54. 
Carthaginiensis, 30, 
Carthago, 41. 
Casca, 72. 

Cassius, 72. 
castrum, 24. 
casus, 42. 
Catilina, 65. 
catena, 32. 
catenatus, 54. 
Catulus, 36. 
Caudinus, 23. 
causa, 11. 
celeritas, 64. 
censor, 23. 
census, 8. 
centeni, 66. 
centum, 2. 
centurio, 64. 
certamen, 20. 
cesso, 17. 
ceter, 39. 
Chalcedon, 63. 
Cicero, 65. 
Cimbri, 55. 
Cimbricus, 55. 
Cincinnatus, 17. 
Cineas, 27. 
cingo, 3. 
Cinna, 58. 
circa, 47. 
circuitus, 66. 
circum, 8. 
circumduco, 45, 
circus, 7. 
civis, 9. 
civitas, 2. 
clarus, 49. 
classis, 36. 
Claudius, 23. 
claudo, 11. 
cloaca, 7. 
Cnaeus, 30. 
Coelius, 5. 
coelum, 25. 
coepi, 12. 



coerceo, 12. 
cognitus, 69. 
cognomen, 20. 
cognosce, 27. 
cogo, 63. 
Collatinus, 10. 
collega, 55. 
colligo, 13. 
colloquium, 60. 
collum, 20. 
colo, 17. 
comes, 64. 
commissus, 39. 
committo, 21. 
commoror, 63. 
commoveo, 3. 
communis, 14. 
compareo, 3. 
compello, 60. 
compleo, 3. 
complexus, 35. 
compono, 72. 
concido, 16. 
concito, 11. 
concludo, 23. 
conditio, 27. 
condo, 2. 
conficio, 51. 
confligo, 39. 
confluo, 76. 
confodio, 72. 
confugio, 74. 
congrego, 67. 
conjicio, .32. 
conjungo, 44. 
conjuratus, 72. 
conjuro, 65. 
Conor, 73. 
consido, 20. 
consilium, 2. 
conspectus, 10. 
conspicio, 69. 

Constantinopolis, 63 
constituo, 1. 
consuetudo, 4. 
consul, 12. 
consularis, 17. 
consulatus, 29. 
consumo, 63. 
contemno, 27. 
contendo, 15. 
contentio, 69. 
contingo, 25. 
contra, 6. 
contradico, 67. 
converto, 61. 
convenio, 69. 
copia, 33. 
Corioli, 15, 
Cornelius, 29. 
corpus, 70. 
corrigo, 51. 
corrumpo, 52. 
Corvinus, 21. 
corvus, 21. 
Cotta, 63. 
credo, 3. creo, 4. 
cruentus, 53. 
Crustumini, 3. 
cum, 1. 
cupiditas, 77. 
curia, 72. 
Curius, 29. 
currus, 54. 
Cursor, 22. 
cursus, 28. 
Cyzicus, 63. 

damno, 18. 
damnum, 41. 
datus, 46. 
de, 10. 
decedo, 4. 

decern, 4. 
Decemviri, 17. 
decemo, 55. 
decimus, 5. 
decipio, 30. 
decretus, 56. 
dedecus, 23. 
deditio, 51. 
deduce, 33. 
defendo, 19. 
defensor, 14. 
defero, 9. 
deinde, 3. 
delatus, 55. 
delendus, 65. 
deleo, 22. 
demerge, 36. 
denique, 71. 
Dentatus, 29. 
denuntie, 37. 
depopulor, 26. 
deprecatio, 15. 
deprehendo, 65. 
describe, 4. 
desere, 44. 
desino, 34. 
despere, 77. 
deterge, 17. 
detraho, 41. 
deus, 3. 
dico, 21. 
dictator, 14. 
dicta tura, 14. 
dies, 3. 
differo, 39. 
difficilius, 28. 
diffugie, 39. 
dignitas, 13. 
dimice, 6. 
dimitto, 24. 
direptus, 69. 
diripio, 64. 


diruo, 49. 

Eumenes, 51. 

filius, 1. 

disciplina, 53. 

evado, 45. 

finis, 25. 

ditissimus, 18. 

evenio, 73. 

finitimus, 2. 

diu, 18. 

everto, 51. 

fio, 23. 

diutumitas, 12. 

ex, 2. 

flagitiossimus, 52. 

divide, 18. 

excidium, 1. 

Flamininus, 46. 

divinus, 43. 

excludo, 11. 

Flaminius, 39. 

divisus, 75. 

exerceo, 51. 

fleo, 44. 

do, 19. 

exercitus, 11. 

fletus, 15. 

dominus, 25. 

exigo, 14, 

flumen, 19. 

Domitius, 62. 

exiguus, 1. 

fluvius, 20. 

domo, 66. 

existimo, 43. 

foedus, 50. 

domus, 5. 

exordium, 1. 

fore, 58. 

dubius, 67. 

expavesco, 25. 

fortis, 68. 

ducenti, 56. 

expello, 12. 

fortuna, 63. 

duco, 8. 

explorator, 24. 

fossa, 8. 

Duilius, 30. 

exsecror, 67. 

f rater, 1. 

dum, 55. 

exstinctus, 59. 

fraus, 30. 

duo, 5. 

exstinguo, 35. 

fuga, 56. 

duodecim, 36. 

exsulo, 19. 

fugio, 11. 

duodecimus, 5. 

extorqueo, 74. 

fugo, 20. 

duplico, 7. 

fulmen, 5. 

durus, 32. 

Fabius, 16. 

fundo, 47. 

dux, 15. 

Fabricius, 27. 

funestissimub, 62 

facile, 69. 

farcula, 23. 

e, 2. 

facio, 7. 

Furius, 21. 

edo, 1. 

factus, 43. 

educo, 45. 

Falisci, 18. 

Gabii, 10 

ejicio, 15. 

fames, 19. 

galea, 21. 

elephantus, 25. 

familia, 16. 

Gallia, 66. 

eligo, 2. 

faveo, 73. 

Gallus, 19, 77. 

enim, 13. 

favor, 22. 

gener, 9. 

Ephesus, 59. 

fecerat, 44. 

gens, 13. 

Epirus, 24. 

felicissime, 22. 

genus, 65. 
Germani, 55. 

eques, 14. 

felicitas, 64. 

equitatus, 48. 

felicius, 56. 

Germania, 66. 

ergo, 13. 

fere, 2. 

gero, 4. 

erro, 33. 

fero, 24. 

gesturus, 67. 

Esquilinua, S. 

ferrum, 26. 

gigno, 8. 

esse, 8. 

Fidenatea, 3. 

Glabrius, 46. 

et, 1. 

fides, 31. 

gloria, 45. 

etiain, 7. 

filia, 9. 

Gracchus,, 38. 



Graecia, 61. 

grandis, 55. 
gratior, 30. 
gravis, 37. 

habeo, 1. 
habeor, 48. 
Hamilcar, 31. 
Hannibal, 37. 
Hasdrubal, 38. 
haurio, 64. 
i Helvetii, 66. 
heres, 51. 
Hiarbas. 62. 
hie, 2. 

Hiempsal, 52. 
hiems, 63. 
hinc, 12. 
Hirtius, 73. 
Hispania, 37. 
homo, 16. 
honestas, 28. 
honestus, 35. 
honor, 22. 
honorifice, 26. 
Hostilius, 5 
hostis, 17. 

ibi, 48. 
ibidem, 43. 
ico, 5. 
idem, 7. 
igitur, 12. 
ignavus, 51. 
ignis, 26. 
ignobilis, 50. 
ignominia, 50. 
ignominiose, 52. 
illatus, 52. 
ille, 28. 
illic, 58. 
illustris, 77 

Illyricum, 66. 
immanis, 66. 
impatiens, 40. 
impatientia, 40. 
imperium, 1. 
impero, 3. 
impetus, 39. 
impono, 20. 
improbo, 52. 

inchoo, 7. 
incognitus, 8. 
inde, 39. 
indico, 24. 
indictus, 38. 
induco, 23. 
industria, 62. 
infamis, 50. 
infero, 37. 
infestus, 64. 
infinitus, 4. 
infringo, 50. 
ingenium, 65. 
ingens, 14. 
ingredior, 58. 
ingressus, 60, 
initium, 77. 
injuria, 3. 
insequor, 52. 
insidiae, 66. 
insolens, 12. 
insolentius, 72. 
instituo, 7. 
insto, 76. 
instruo, 45. 
insum, 43. 
integer, 42. 
inter, 22. 
interea, 27. 
interemit, 77. 
interfector, 75. 
interfectus, 73. 

interficio, 21. 
interim, 76. 
interim©, 39. 
Lnterjicio, 24. 
intemecio, 55. 
intervenio, 68. 
intra, 57. 
intro, 7. 
intueor, 69. 
intuli, 66. 
invado, 59. 
invenio, 17. 
inventus, 39. 
invicem, 14. 
invictus, 30. 
invidia, 18. 
invito, 2. 
invius, 38. 
ipse, 2, 
irascor, 15. 
iratus, 58. 
is, 1 
ita, 19. 
Italia, 18. 
Italicus, 62. 
itaque, 16. 
iteriim, 50. 

jaceo, 25, 
jam, 22. 
Janiculum, 6. 
jubeo, 24. 
judex, 77. 
judico, 73. 
jugenim, 17. 
jugum, 23. 
Jugurtha, 52. 
Jugurthinus, oo. 
Julius, 66. 
jungo, 26. 
junior, 9. 
Junius. 12. 



Jupiter, 10. 
jusserat, 73. 
jussus, 54. 
juvenilis, 69. 
juvenis, 10. 
juxta, 55. 

Kaeso, 16. 

L, 17. 
laboro, 19. 
Lacedaemonii, 32. 
lacrima, 69. 
lacrimabilis, 67. 
Laevinus, 24. 
lateo, 59. 
Latini, 6. 
latro, 4. 
lectus, 59. 
legatus, 15. 
legio, 21. 
Lentulus, 29. 
Lepidus, 74. 
lex, 4. 
liberi, 11. 
libero, 17. 
libertas, 72. 
Libumus, 30. 
Libyssa, 47. 
Lilybaeum, 36. 
literae, 59. 
locus, 13. 
longe, 61. 
longius, 12. 
lorica, 70. 
Lucani, 26. 
Lucius, 10. 
Lucretia, 12. 
Lucullus, 63. 
lugeo, 14. 
Lutatius, 36. 

M, 55. 
M', 46. 

Macedonia, 67. 
Macedonicus, 46. 
magis, 42. 
magister, 14. 
Magnesia, 47. 
major, 69. 
male, 18. 
malum, 34. 
malus, 12. 
Mancinus, 50. 
mando, 37. 
maneo, 13. 
Manius, 29. 
Manlius, 20, 
manus, 17. 
Marcellus, 67. 
Marcius, 6. 
Marcus, 21. 
mare, 30. 
Marianus, 62. 
maritus, 10. 
Marius, 53. 
Mars, 1. 
Martins, 77. 
Masinissa, 44. 
mater, 15. 
matrona, 14. 
Mauritania, 53. 
Maximus, 22. 
medicus, 28. 
medius, 22. 
melior, 69. 
memoria, 7. 
mensis, 4. 
mereo, 49. 
mergo, 30. 
meritum, 21. 
Metellus, 33. 
metus, 42. 

Micipsa, 52. 
migro, 13. 
miles, 21. 
militaris, 19. 
milito, 48. 
millia, 9. 
milliarium, 5. 
minor, 64. 
minus, 4. 
missus, 28. 
Mithridates, 57. 
Mithridaticus, 57. 
mitto, 18. 
moderatio, 53. 
modius, 41. 
moneo, 40. 
mons, 5. 
morbus, 4. 
morior, 25. 
mors, 64. 
mortuus, 51. 
mos, 4. 
moveo, 75. 
mox, 11. 
muliebris, 77. 
multitude, 2. 
multo, 64. 
multus, 13. 
Munda, 71. 
mums, 7. 
muto, 61. 

nam, 4. 

nascor, 1. 

Nasica, 52. 

natio, 2. 

natus, 43. 

navalis, 47. 

navigatio, 64. 

navis, 30. 

ne, 12. 

ne , . . quidem, 66. 



nee, 19, 68. 
necessitas, 23. 
nego, 35. 
nepos, 6. 
neque, 19. 
Xicomedes, 58. 
Nicomedienses, 47. 
nihU, 34. 
Nilus, 70. 
nisi, 15. 
nobilis, 8. 
nobilissimus, 10. 
nobilitas, 67. 
noctumus, 46. 
nolo, 32. 
nomen, 2. 
nomino, 2. 
non, 2. 

nonagesimus, 1. 
nonus, 14. 
Norbanus, 61. 
noster, 7. 
novem, 66. 
novus, 14. 
nox, 25. 
nudus, 59. 
nuUus, 4. 
Numa, 4. 
Numantia, 51. 
Numantini, 50. 
numen, 43. 
numenis, 7. 
Numidae, 33. 
Numidia, 44. 
nunc, 63. 
nunquam, 69. 

ob, 18. 
obeo, 77. 
obsequor, 14. 
obses, 66. 
obsideo, 17. 

obsidio, 63. 

obtineo, 27. 

occasio, 22. 

occido, 7. 

occisus, 71. 

occupo, 19. 

occurro, 39. 

oceanus, 66. 

Octavianus, 73. 

octavus, 5. 

octingenti, 25. 

octo, 30. 

octodecim, 1. 

octoginta, 9. 

oculus, 21. 

offero, 21. 

onmino, 16. 

omnis, 2. 

opera, 74. 

oppidum, 3. 

opprimo, 63. 

oppugno, 10. 

optimus, 21. 

opto, 77. 

opulentissimus, 50. 

orator, 65. 

orbis, 8. 

ordino, 8. 
I Oriens, 75. 
j orior, 3. 
j omamentum, 49. 
! oro, 61. 

ostendo, 24. 

Ostia, 6. 

P, 40. 
paene, 45. 
Palatinus, 1. 
palus, 59. 
Pansa, 73. 
Paphlagonia, 59. 
Papirius, 22. 

paratissimus, 48. 
parens, 11. 
pareo, 73. 
pariter, 53. 
paro, 30. 
pars, 27. 
PartM, 76. 
partim, 51. 
partus, 1. 
passus, 66. 
patefacio, 38. 
pateo, 66. 
pater, 10. 
j patior, 58. 
patria, 15. 
paucus, 64. 
paulisper, 57. 
Paulus, 40. 
pauper, 27. 
pax, 10. 
pecunia, 52. 
pedes, 38. 
pello, 59. 
per, 3. 

percussor, 73. 
perdo, 10. 
pereo, 6. 
pergo, 26. 
periculum, 60. 
peritus, 45. 
permaneo, 7. 
permutatio, 34. 
perpetuus, 20. 
Persae, 76. 
persequor, 61. 
pestilentia, 76. 
peto, 15. 
Petreius, 68. 
Phamea, 48. 
Phamaces, 64. 
Pharsalia, 68. 
Philippi, 75. 



Philippus, 46. 
Picenum, 22. 
pirata, 64. 
placeo, 12. 
plurimum, 30. 
poena, 37. 
Poeni, 35. 
polliceor, 28. 
pompa, 33. 
Pompeius, 62. 
Pompilius, 4. 
pondus, 36. 
pono, 10. 
Pontus, 58. 
populus, 2. 
porta, 11. 
posco, 67. 
positurus, 53. 
possideo, 17. 
possum, 13. 
post, 1. 
postea, 4. 
posterior, 43. 
posterus, 20. 
postquam, 15. 
postremo, 45. 
postremus, 69. 
Postumius, 36. 
potens, 22. 
potestas, 12. 
potior, 70. 
potitus, 73. 
potuerat, 28 
praeda, 18. 
praecipio, 22. 
praecipuus, 27. 
praeficio, 62. 
praelium, 4. 
Praeneste, 26. 
praepono, 77. 
praesens, 66. 
praesto, 72. 

praesum, 48. 
praeter, 67. 
praetextus, 17. 
praetorius, 41. 
prandium, 45. 
pravus, 65. 
pretium, 26. 
primo, 66. 
primum, 18. 
primus, 7. 
principatus, 77. 
Priscus, 7. 
prius, 28. 
pro, 12. 
procedo, 21. 
produoo, 68. 
profectus, 29. 
proficiscor, 16. 
promitto, 28. 
propter, 2. 
proscribo, 60. 
prospere, 46. 
prosum, 4. 
protraho, 55. 
provincia, 51. 
provoco, 20. 
Prusias, 47. 
Ptolemaeus, 70. 
Publicola, 13. 
Publius, 24. 
pudicitia, 14 
puerilis, 16. 
pugna, 14. 
pugno, 22. 
Punicus, 30. 
punio, 51. 
puto, 4. 

Pylaemenes, 59. 
Pyrenaeus, 38. 
Pyrrhus, 24. 

Q. 22. 

quadragesimus, 4, 
quadraginta, 64. 
quadringenti, 36. 
quadringenties, 66, 
quaestor, 54. 
qualis, 45. 
quam, 4. 
quare, 27. 
quarto, 55. 
quartus, 1. 
quasi, 14. 
quattuor, 9. 
quattuordecim, 30. 
que, 4. 
queror, 10. 
qui, 1. 
quia, 55. 
quicunque, 24. 
quidam, 21. 
quiddam, 43. 
quidem, 4. 66. 
quindecim, 59. 
quingentesimus, 40. 
quingenti, 32. 
quini, 3. 

quinquagesimus, 46. 
quinquaginta, 47. 
quinque, 11. 
Quintius, 15. 
quinto, 56. 
quintus, 9. 
Quirinalis, 8. 
quisquam, 13. 
quod, 18. 
quondam, 69. 
quoque, 8. 
quum, 2. 

rapio, 2. 
rebello, 18. 
recedo, 14. 
recessit, 29. 



recipe re se, 31. 
recipio, 2. 
reddo, 12. 
redeo, 22. 
redigo, 36. 
redimo, 26. 
reduce, 28. 
regina, 76. 
regius, 72. regno, 3. 
regnum, 3. 
regredior, 35. 
Regulus, 31. 
relictus, 38. 
relinquo, 11. 
reliquisse, 44. 
reliquus, 33. 
remaneo, 31. 
remanserat, 75. 
removeo, 15. 
Remus, 1. 
renuntio, 14. 
reparo, 60. 
reperio, 22. 
repeto, 47. 
repudio, 15. 
res, 20. 
respondeo, 58. 
restituo, 13. 
retro, 31. 
reverentia, 48. 
revoco, 19. 
rex, 4. 
Rhenus, 66. 
Rhodanus, 55. 
Roma, 2. 
Romanus, 1. 
Romulus, 1. 
rumpo, 63. 
rupit, 76. 
nirsua, 63. 

Sabini, 3. 

sacrum, 4. 

saepe, 15. 

saepius, 31. 

saevio, 64. 

Saguntini, 37. 

Saguntum, 37. 

Samnites, 22. 

sanguis, 61. 

saucio, 41. 

scelus, 9. 

scilicet, 49. 

scio, 68. 

Scipio, 38. 

se, 26. 

secundo, 50. 

secundus, 37- 

secutus, 19. 

sed, 4. seditio, 64. 

semel, 66. 

semibarbarus, 4. 

Sempronius, 38. 

senator, 2. 

senatus, 23. 

senectus, 2. 

senior, 2. 

Senones, 19. 

sepelio, 25. 

septem, 23. 

Septimus, 3. 

septingentesimus 49 

septuaginta, 31. 

sepultus, 77. 

Sequani, 66. 

sequor, 17. 

Sergius, 05. 

sermo, 43. 

Servilius, 72. 

servio, 35. 
j Servius, 8. 
j sestertixun, 66. 
{ severitas, 53. 

sex, 33. 

sexagesimus, 57. 
sexaginta, 31. 
sexcentesimus, 57. 
sexies, 57. 
sextus, 5. 
Sextus, 71. 
si, 12. 
sic, 27. 
Sicilia, 29. 
signum, 19. 
simul, 56. 
sine, 26. 
singularis, 20. 
Sipylus, 47. 
socer, 14. 
socialis, 57. 
socius, 37. 
sol, 28. 
sollicito, 27. 
solum, 51. 
solus, 16. 
solutus, 50. 
solvo, 23. 
soror, 70. 
spectaculum, 2, 
spolium, 44. 
spondeo, 28. 
Spurius, 52. 
statim, 13. 
stemo, 23. 
stipendiarius, 66. 
strangulo, 54. 
suadeo, 35. 
sub, 9. 

subactunis, 69. 
subigo, 8. 
subito, 3. 
subitus, 3. 
subjugo, 50. 
sublatus, 13. 
subvenio, 61. 



succedo, 5. 
successus, 53, 66. 
sudor, 17. 
Suessa, 10 
sufficio, 11. 
sui, 10. 
Sulla, 54. 
Sulpicius, 20. 
sum, 8. 
summus, 17. 
superbus, 9. 
superior, 36. 
supero, 5. 
supersum, 16. 
supplicium, 35. 
susceptus, 64. 
suscipio, 6. 
suus, 2. 
Syphax, 44. 
Syriacus, 46. 

talis, 25. 
tamen, 8. 
tandem, 43. 
tantum, 32. 
tantus, 16. 
Tarentini, 24. 
Tarentum, 29. 
Tarquinius, 7. 
tempestas, 3. 
templum, 4. 
tempus, 23. 
teneo, 27. ter, 66. 
Terentius, 40. 
tergum, 60. 
terminus, 54. 
terra, 8. 
terror, 26. 
tertio, 55. 
tertius, 4. 
testamentum, 51. 

Teutobodus, 56. 
Teutones, 55. 
Thessalia, 68. 
Tiberius, 38. 
Tigranes, 64. 
Tigurini, 55. 
timor, 55. 
Titurius, 66. 
Titus, 16. 
toga, 17. 
toUo, 13. 
Torquatus, 20. 
torques, 20. 
tot, 66. 
totus, 25. 
tracto, 25. 
trado, 38. traho, 62. 
trajicio, 38. 
trans, 20. 
transeo, 3. 
transfero, 31. 
transgredior, 62. 
transigo, 46. 
transmarinus, 24. 
transtulisset, 63. 
Trebia, 39. 
trecentesimus, 1. 
trecenti, 16. 
tredecim, 36. 
tres, 8. 
tribunus, 21. 
tribuo, 36. 
tributum, 66. 
tricesimus, 3. 
tricies, 66. 
triduum, 59. 
triginta, 5. 
triumpho, 7. 
triumphus, 54. 
Troja, 1. 
trux, 25. 
tulisse, 25. 

Tullius, 8. 
Tullus, 5. 
turn, 21. 
tunc, 2. 
turbo, 73. 
Tusci, 10. 
Tuscia, 39. 
tutor, 69. 
tutus, 64. 
tyrannicus, 72. 

ubi, 41. 
ubicunque, 59. 
uilus, 30. 
ultimus, 10. 
undique, 13. 
unguis, 21. 
universus, 61. 
unus, 1. 
urbs, 1. 
usque, 15. 
ut, 12. 
uterque, 45. 
uxor, 2. 

vacuus, 68. 
Valerius, 13. 
validus, 68. 
varius, 49. 
Varro, 40. 
vasto, 26. 
Veientes, 3. 
vel, 48. 
venenum, 28. 
venio, 11. 
verbero, 21. 
verum, 40. 
vestalis, 1. 
veto, 22. 
Veturia, 15. 
via, 23. 
vicesimus, 6= 



eicinus, 2. 
victor, 14. 
victoria, 21. 
victus, 31. 
vicus, 40. 
video, 25. 
viginti, 11. 
Viminalis, 8 
vincio, 28. 
vmco, 3. 

vindico, 14. 
vir, 27. 
Virginius 16. 
virgo, 1. 
virtus, 36. 
vitiosus, 51. 
vito, 48. 
vix, 45. 
voce, 2. 
volo, 12. 

Volsci, 10. 
Volso, 31. 
Volumnia, 15. 
voluntas, 72. 
vox, 25. 
vulnero, 36. 
vulnus, 25. 
vultus, 25. 

Xantippus, 32. 


able (to be), 13. 

absent (to be), 5, 22. 
abstain from (to), 37 
according to, 2. 
Achaia, 46. 
acre, 17. 
act (to), 2. 
add (to), 5. 
Adherbal, 52. 
admire (to), 27. 
adopt (to), 74. 
advise (to), 35. 
Africa, 31. 
African, 30. 
Africanus, 47. 
after, 1. 
afterwards, 4. 
against, 6, 20. 
age. 16. 
Alban, 5. 
Alexandria, 69. 
Algidus, 17. 
all, 2. 
alone, 16. 
also, 7. 
although, 2. 
among, 22. 
ancient, 18. 
Ancus, 6. 
angry (to be), 15. 
Anio, 20. 

another, 5. 
answer (to), 58. 
Antiochus, 46. 
Antony, 65. 
anything, 13. 
Appian, 23. 
appoint (to), 8. 
apprehend (to), 65. 
approach (to), 15. 
Apulia, 22. 
Ardea, 10. 
arm (to), 21. 
army, 11, 18. 
arrival, 38. 
arrogantly, 72. 
as, 14. 

as far as, 15. 
Asia. 47. 
ask (to), 34. 
assassin, 73. 
assistance, 15. 
Atilius, 31. 
attempt (to), 73. 
Augustus, 73. 
author, 50. 
avenge (to), 14. 
Aventine, 6. 
avoid (to), 48. 

badly, 18. 
banish (to), 12. 

battle, 14. 
be (to), 8. 
beaked, 30. 
bear (to), 24. 
bear off (to), 2. 
beat (to), 3. 
because, 18, 55. 
befall (to), 67. 
before, 72. 
begin (to), 12. 
behold (to), 69. 
benefit (to), 4. 
besiege (to), 17. 
best, 21. 
Bestia, 52. 
betake oneself (to), 

26, 31. 
betray (to), 38. 
Bibulus, 66. 
bind (to), 28. 
blockade (to), 17. 
bloody, 53. 
Bocchus, 53. 
body, 70. 

booty, 18. both, 40. 
Bosphorus, 64. 
bravery, 36. 
breakfast, 45. 
bribe (to), 27, 52. 
bring (to), 24. 



bring back (to), 36. 
brother, 1. 
Brutus, 11. 
build (to), 1. 
burn (to), 5. 
bury (to), 25. 
but, 4. 
by, 1. 

C, 20. 

Caesar, 66, 
call (to), 2. 
Camillus, 18. 
camp, 24. 
Cauipania, 22, 
Campus, 77. 
Cannae, 40. 
Capitol, 7. 
captive, 26. 
capture (to), 15. 
Carbo, 61. 
carry on (to), 4. 
carry over (to), 81. 
Carthage, 31. 
Carthaginian, 30. 
Catiline, 65. 
Catulus, 36. 
Caudine, 23. 
cavalry, 14, 48. 
cease (to), 34. 
celebrate (to), 2. 
census, 8. 
centurion, 64. 
ceremony, 33. 
certain one (a), 21. 
chain, 32. 
Chalcedon, 63. 
challenge (to), 20. 
change (to), 61. 
chastity, 14. 
chief, 17. 
children, 11. 

Cicero, 65. 
Cimbri, 55. 
Cincinnatus, 17. 
Cineas, 27. 
Cinna, 58. 
circus, 7. 
citizen, 0. 
city, 1. 
Claudius, 23. 
Cleopatra, 70. 
close (to), 11. 
collar, 20. 
colleague, 55. 
CoUatinus, 10. 
collect (to), 13. 
combat, 20. 
come (to), 11. 
come on (to), 68. 
come to pass (to), 

line 531. 
come up (to), 15. 
command (to be 

in), 48. 
commence (to), 21. 
commit (to), 35. 
complete (to), 3. 
condemn (to), 18. 
condition, 27. 
confer (to), 72, 
conquer (to), 3, 5.- 
conqueror, 14. 
considered (to be), 

conspire (to), 65. 
conspirator, 72. 
construct (to), 23. 
consul, 12. 
consulship, 29. 
(vorioli, 15. 
Cornelius, 29. 
correct (to), 51. 
Corviuus, 21. 

country, 15. 
course, 28. 
crime, 73. 
cross over (to), 3. 
cuirass, 70, 
cultivate (to), 17. 
Curius, 29. 
Cursor, 22. 

daughter, 9. 
day, 3. 
dead, 25. 
death, 'page 64. 
Decemvirs, 17. 
declare (to), 24. 
defeat (to), 3. 
defend (to), 19. 
defender, 14. 
defer (to), 39. 
delay (to), 39. 
demand (to), 67. 
desire (to), 77. 
despair (to), 77. 
despise (to), 27. 
destroy (to), 22. 
dictator, 14. 
dictatorship, 14. 
difficult, 28. 
dignity, 13. 
dinner, 45. 
disapprove (to), 52. 
disaster, 67. 
disgrace, 23. 
disgraceful, 52. 
dispo.^ition, 65. 
distressed (to be), 19 
divide (to), 4, 18. 
divine, 43. 
do (to), 2, 7. 
doctor, 28. 
Domitius, 62. 
drag off (to), 41. 



dread (to), 25. 
drive out (to), 12. 
Duilius, 30. 

eighteen, 1. 
eighty, 9. 
either ... or, 56. 
Egypt, 69. 
elephant, 25. 
empire, 1. 
encamp (to), 20. 
end, 25, 54. 
end (to), 46. 
enemy, 17. 
engage (to), 39. 
enlarge (to), 5. 
ensuing, line 525. 
enter (to), 7, 58. 
enter on (to), 9. 
envy, 18. 
Ephesus, 59. 
Epirus, 24. 
establish (to), 7. 
evil, 34. 
except, 15. 
exchange, 34. 
excite (to), 11. 
expel (to), 12. 
eye, 21. 

Fabian, 16. 
Fabius, 16. 
Fabricius, 27. 
face, 25. 
fair, 27. 
fall (to), 16. 
famine, 19. 
fear, 26, 42. 
field, 9. 
fierce, 25. 
fifth, 9. 
fifty, 47. 

fight, 14. 

fight (to), 6, 39. 

find (to), 17. 

fire, 26. 

first, 7. 

first time (for the), 

five, 11. 

five hundred, 32. 
five hundredth, 40. 
Flaminius, 39. 
flee (to), 11. 
fleet, 36. 
fly (to), 11. 
follow (to), 17. 
for ever, 20. 
for fe;ir, line 397. 
force (to), 74. 
forces, 33. 
Forks, 23. 
former, 36. 
fortieth, 4, 
forty, 64. 
fortune, 63. 
found (toi, 2. 
four, 9. 
fourth, 1. 
free (to), 17. 
friend, 10. 
friendship, 44. 
from, 1. 
from all sides, 13. 

gain possession of 

(to), 70. 
Gallus, 77. 
game, 2. 
gate, 11. 
Gaul, 19. 
general, 15. 
gens, 13. 
Germans, 55. 

give (to), 19. 
glory, 45. 
go over (to), 3. 
god, 3. 
gold, 19. 
golden, 20. 
grant (to), 19. 
great, 14, 55. 
greater, 69. 
Gracchus, 38. 

Hamilcar, 31. 
hand, 17. 

hand over (to), 38. 
Hannibal, 37. 
hard, 32. 
hardl}', 45. 
Hasdrubal, 38. 
hasten (to), 15. 
have (to), 1. 
he, 1, 28. 
hear (to), 44. 
heir, 51. 
helmet, 21. 
help, 15. 
help (to), 61. 
Helvetii, 66. 
herself, 2. 
Hiempsal, 52. 
hill, 1. 
himself, 2. 
his, 2. 
hitherto, 8. 
hold (to), 1. 
honesty, 28. 
honour, 22. 
honourable, .35. 
honourably, 26, 
Hostilius, 5. 
house, 5. 
hundred, 2. 
hunger, 19. 



if, 12. 

ignoble, 50. 
in, 1. 

in order that, 13. 
in turn, 14. 
industry, 62. 
infantry, 38. 
injure (to), 10. 
injury, 3. 
insolent, 12. 
into, 1. 
Italy, 18. 

join (to), 8. 
Jugurtha, 52. 

K, 16. 
keep (to), 1. 
kill (to), 7, 21. 
king, 4. 
kingdom, 3. 
know (to), 27. 

L, 17. 

Lacedemonians, 32. 
Laevinus, 24. 
large, 55. 
last, 10. 

lay waste (to), 26. 
lead (to), 8. 
lead back (to), 28. 
leader, 15. 
leadership, line 1 52. 
leave (to), 11, 44. 
legate, 15. 
legion, 21. 
Lentulus, 29. 
Lepidus, 74. 
less, 64. 
letter, 59. 
Liburnian, 30. 
lightning, 5. 

longer, 12. 
lord, 25. 
lose (to), 31. 
loss, 41. 
Lucullus, 63. 

M, 55. 

Macedonia, 67. 
Macedonians, 46. 
made (to be), 23. 
Magnesia, 47. 
make (to), 7. 
man, 16, 27. 
Manlius, 20. 
many, 13. 
Marcius, 6. 
Marius, 53. 
marry (to), 8. 
Martins, 77. 
Masinissa, 44. 
master, 14. 
master of horse, 14. 
matron, 14. 
Maximus, 22. 
meet (to), 39. 
memory, 7. 
messenger, 15. 
Metellus, 33. 
mile, 5. 

Mithridates, 57. 
money, 52. 
month. 4. 
more, 12. 
more ... than, 42. 
mother, 15. 
mourn for (to), 14. 
mount, 5. 
multitude, 2. 
Munda, 71. 
murderer, 75. 

nation, 2. 
naval, 47. 
near, 19, 55. 
nearly, 2. 
neck, 20. 
neighbouring, 2. 
nephew, 6. 
never, 69. 
new, 14. 
Nicomedes, 58. 
night, 25. 
ninetieth, 1. 
no, 4. 
no one, 4. 
noble, 8, 
not, 2. 

not ... even, 66. 
notice (to give), 37. 
Numa, 4. 
Numidia, 44. 
Xumidians, 33. 
Numantini, 50. 

offer (to), 21. 

old, 43. 

on, 1. 

on account of, 2. 

on the other side, 

one, 1. 
only, 32. 
openly, line 70. 
opportunity, 22. 
oppose (to), 67. 
order, 54. 
order (to), 24, 73. 
ornament, 49. 
other (the), 12. 
others, 5. 
our, 7. 
out of, 2. 
over the sea, 24. 



overcome (to), 5. 
overthrow (to), 51. 

P, 24. 

Palatine, 1. 
Papirius, 22. 
part, 28. 
partly, 51. 
pass, 23. 
pass over (to), 3. 
peace, 10. 
peck, 41. 
people, 2. 
perish (to), 6. 
pestilence, 76. 
Philippi, 75. 
Pharnaces, 64. 
place in command 

(to), 62. 
place on (to), 20. 
place over (to), 77. 
pleasing, 30. 
plough (to), 17. 
poison, 28. 
Pompey, 4. 
Pompilius, 62. 
Pontus, 58. 
poor, 27. 
position, 13. 
possess (to), 17. 
posterity, 20. 
power, 12. 
powerful, 22. 
Praeneste, 26. 
pray (to), 61. 
prayer, 15. 
prepare (to), 30. 
press hard (to), 76. 
Prisons, 7. 
prisoner, 26. 
promise (to), 28. 
protract (to), 55. 

province, 51. 
Publius, 24. 
Punic, 30. 
punish (to), 51. 
pursue (to), 17. 
put (to), 19. 
put to death (to), 7. 
Pyrrhus, 24. 

quarter, 27. 
Queen, 76. 
Quintius, 15. 

raven, 21. 
receive (to), 2, 6. 
recognize (to), 49. 
recover (to), 19. 
Regulus, 31. 
reign (to), 3. 
reject (to), 15. 
remain (to), 7, 13, 

remove (to), 13. 
Remus, 1. 
renew (to), 60. 
reply (to), 58. 
report (to), 24. 
resolved, 12. 
rest, 33. 
restore (to), 13. 
restrain (to), 12. 
retire (to). 22. 
retreat (to), 35. 
return (to), 22. 
Rhone, 55. 
rich (very), 18. 
ring, 41. 
rise up (to), 72. 
river, 20. 
Roman, 1. 
Rome, 2. 
Romulus, 1. 

rule (to), 3. 

ruler, 77. 

Sabines, 3. 
sacred, 4. 
8aguntum, 37. 
same, 7. 
.Samnites, 22. 
say (to), 25. 
say not (to), 35. 
Scipio, 38. 
scout, 24. 
sea, 30. 
second, 37, 
sedition, 64. 
see (to), 25. 
seek (to), 15. 
seize (to), 19. 
Sempronius, 38. 
Senate, 23. 
senator, 2. 
send (to), 18. 
send away (to), 24 
Senonian, 19. 
service, 21. 
Servius, 8. 
Sequani, 66. 
set out (to), 16. 
settle on (to), 20. 
seven, 23. 
seventh, 3. 
severity, 53. 
sewer, 7. 
shed (to), 67. 
ship, 30. 

shut out (to), 11. 
shut up (to), 23. 
Sicily, 29. 
silver, 36. 
sink (to), 36. 
single, 20. 
situate, 10. 



six times, 57. 
sixth, 5. 
sixty, 57. 
skilful, 48. 
skill, 2. 
slaughter, 55. 
slave (to be a), 35. 
slay (to), 7. 
small, 1. 
so, 19, 27. 
so great, 16. 
social, 57. 
soldier, 21. 
some, 5. 
something, 21. 
son, 1. 

son-in-law, 9. 
soon, 11. 
soon afterwards, 

Spain, 37. 
spoil, 18, 44. 
standard, 19. 
state, 2. 
stir up (to), 3. 
strike (to), 5. 
strive (to), 57. 
subdue (to), 8. 
succeed (to), 5. 
successfully, 22, 46. 
sue (to), 15. 
suffer (to), 7, 58. 
Sulla, 54. 
Sulpicius, 20. 
sun, 28. 
Superbus, 9. 
surname, 20. 
surround (to), 3. 
survive (to), 16. 

T, 16. 

take (to), 15. 

take away (to), 11. 
Tarentiues, 24. 
Tareutum, 29. 
Tarquinius, 7. 
tear, 69. 
tempest, 3. 
temple, 4. 
ten, 4. 
terror, 26. 
Teutones, 55. 
than, 4. 
their, 2. 
then, 21. 
there, 4S. 
therefore, 13. 
thief, 4. 

think (to), 4, 43. 
thirty, 5. 
this, 2. 
thousand, 9. 
three, 8. 

three hundred, 16. 
three hundredth, 1. 
throw (to), 32. 
through, 3. 
throughout, 3. 
Tiberius, 38. 
to, 2. 

together with, 1. 
Torquatus, 20. 
town, 3. 
treaty, 50. 
Trebia, 39. 
tribe, 13. 
triumph, 54. 
triumph (to), 7. 
Tullius, 8. 
Tullus, 5. 
turn from (to), 28. 
turn out (to), 73. 
twelve, 36. 
twenty, 11. 

two, 5. 

under, 9. 
undertake (to), 6. 
unknown, 8. 
unlimited, 4. 
unsuccessful, 25, 
unwilling (to be), 

Valerius, 13. 
valour, 36. 
Veientes, 3. 
vessel, 30. 
Vestal, 1. 
Veturia, 15. 
victory, 21. 
village, 40. 
virgin, 1. 
Volsci, 10. 
Volso, 31. 
Volumnia, 15. 

wage (to), 4. 
wall, 7. 

wander (to), 33. 
war, 3. 

warfare, line 702. 
waste (to), 63. 
way, 23. 

wear out (to), 51. 
weep (to), 44. 
weeping, 15. 
weight. 30. 
what, 24. 
where, 41. 
wherefore, 27. 
wherever, 59. 
when, 2. 
while, 55. 
who, 1. 
whole, 25. 



whole world, 

page 62. 
wicked, 12. 
wicked act, 9. 
wife, 2. 
will, 51, 72. 

wish (to), 12. 
with, 1. 

withdraw (to), 14. 
woman, 8. 
wound (to), 36. 
wrong (to), 10. 

year, 1. 
yoke, 23. 
young, 10. 
youth, 16. 

Xautippus, 32. 



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The following contain Introductions, Notes, and Vocabularies, and in 
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15v \V. WEr.cii, .M.A., uud C. G. Dlkkikld, .M.A. 
Aeschylus— PKOM ETHE US VINCTUd. By Rev. H. M. .Stephen.son, MA. 
Arrian.— SELECTIONS. With Exercises. By Rev. John Bond, M. A., and 

Rev. A. S. Wai.pole. M.A 
Aulus Gellius, Stories from. Adapted for Beginners. With 

liy Rev. G. H. Nai.l. M.A. 
Caesar.— THE Helvetian war. Selections from Book I., adapted for 
JJctrinners. With Exercises. By W. Welch, M.A.,andC.G. Duffield, M.A. 
THE INVASION OF BRITAIN. Selections from Books IV. and V., 

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SCENES FROM BOOKS V. and VI. By C. Colbeck, M.A. 
THE GALLIC WAR. Book I. By Rev. A. S. Walpolk, M.A. 
Books II. and III. By the Rev. W. G. Rutherford, M.A., LL.D. 
Book IV. By Clement Bryans, M.A. 

Book V. By C. Colbeck, M.A., Assistant Master at Harrow. 
Book VI. By C. Colbeck, M.A. 

Book VII. By Rev. J. Bond, M.A., and Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
THE CIVIL WAR. Book I. Bv M. Montgomrky, M.A. 
Cicero.— DE SENECTQTE. By E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A. 
UE AMICITIA. Bv the same. 
STORIES OF ROMAN HISTORY. Adapted for Beginners. With 

Exercises. Bv Rev. G. E. Jeaxs, M.A., and A. V. Jones, M.A. 
Curtius (Quintus),— SELECTIONS.— Adapted for Beginners. With Notes, 

VocabiUai V, and Exercises. By F. Coverley Smith. 
Euripides.— ALCESTIS. By Rev. M. A. Bayfield, M.A. 
MEDEA. By Rev. M. A. Bayfield, M.A. 

HECLI5A. By Rev. J. Bond, M.A., and Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
Eutropius.- Adajited for Beginners. With Exercises. By W. Welch, M.A., 
and ('. G. DuFFlEf.D, M.A. 
BooK.s I. and II. By the same. 
Exercises in Unseen Translation in Latin. By w. Welch, m.a., 

:ind Rev. C. G. Dlfiield, .M.A. 
Herodotus, Tales from. Atticized. By G. s. Farxell, M.A. 
Homer.— ILIAD. Bk. I. ByRev. J.BoND,M.A.,andRev. A. S.Wali>olk, M.A. 
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Horace.— ODES. Books I., II., III. and IV. separately. By T. E. Paqk, M.A. 
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J. Bond, M.A., and Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
TRISTIA. Book I. By E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A. 

Book III. By E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A. 
G. H. Peacock, M.A., and E. W. W. Bkll, M.A. 
Phaedrus.— FABLES. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A. 

SELECT FABLES. Adapted for Beginners. By Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A.' 
Pliny.— SELECTIONS Illustrative of Roman Life. By C. H. Keene, M.A.1 

LETTERS. I.-XII. By C. J. Phillips, B. A. 
SallUSt.— JUGURTHINE WAR. By E. P. Coleridge, B.A. 
Suetonius.— STORIES OF the CAESARS. By H. Wilkinson, M.A. 

Thucydides.— THE rise of the Athenian empire. Book 

Chs. 89-117 and 228-238. With Exercises. By F. H. Colson. M.A. 
Books II. and III. By W. T. Sutthery, M.A., and A. S. Graves, B.A, 
Book VII. Athenian Disaster in Sicily. By E. C. Marchant, M.A. 
Valerius Maximus. By c. H. Ward, m.a. 
Virgil.— SELECTIONS. By E. S. Shuckburgh. M.A. 
BUCOLICS. By T. E. Page, M.A. 

GEORGICS. Book L By T. E. Pagf., M.A. Book III. By T. E. Page, M.A- 
Book II. By Rev. J. H- Shrine, M.A. Book IV. Bv T. E. Page, M.A. 
AENEID. Book L By l!ev. A. S. Walpole, M.A. 

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Book VL By T. E. Page, M.A. 

Xenophon.— ANABASIS. Selections, adapted for Beginners. Wltl 

Exercises. By W. Welch, M.A., and C. G. Duffield, M.A. 

Book I. With Exercises. By E. A. Wells, M.A. 

Book I. By Rev. A. S. Walpole, :M.A. 

Book II. By Rev. A. S. Walpole, ]\I.A. ^ 

Book III. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A. 

Book IV, By Rev. E. D. Stone. M.A. 

Book V. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A. 

Book VI. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A. 

Book VII. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A 

SELECTIONS FROM BK. IV. With Exercises. By Rev. E. D. Stone. M.A. 

SELECTIONS from the CYROPAEDIA. Exercises. Bv A. H. Cooke, M. A. 

TALKS FROM THE CYROPAEDIA. With Exercises. ByC. H. Keene, M.A. 


The following contain Introductions and Notes, but no Vocabulary 

Cicero.— SELECT letters. By Rev. G. E. Jeans, M.A. 

Herodotus.— SELECTIONS FROM BOOKS VII. and VIII. The Expedition 

of Xerxes. By A. H. Cooke, M.A. 
Rev. W. J. V. Baker, M.A. 
Terence.— SCENES FROM THE ANDRIA. By F. W. Cornish, M.A., 
Vice-Provost of Eton. 

The Greek Elegiac Poets.— FROM CALLINUS TO callimaCHUS. 

Selected bv Rev. Herbert Kynaston, D.D. 
Tbucydides.- Book IV. Chs. 1-41. THE CAPTURE OF SPHACTERIA. 

By C. E. Graves, M.A. 



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